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GS Paper 1 Question Paper (Analysis & Solutions) – UPSC Civil Services Mains 2023

UPSC Mains GS1 Question Paper 2023 (Analysis & Solutions)

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  1. Explain the role of geographical factors towards the development of Ancient India. (Answer in 150 words) 10
  2. What was the difference between Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindranath Tagore in their approach towards education and nationalism? (Answer in 150 words) 10
  3. Bring out the socio-economic effects of the introduction of railways in different countries of the world. (Answer in 150 words) 10
  4. Discuss the consequences of climate change on the food security in tropical countries. (Answer in 150 words) 10
  5. Why is the world today confronted with a crisis of availability of and access to freshwater resources? (Answer in 150 words) 10
  6. How are the fjords formed? Why do they constitute some of the most picturesque areas of the world? (Answer in 150 words) 10
  7. Why is the South-West Monsoon called ‘Purvaiya’ (easterly) in Bhojpur Region? How has this directional seasonal wind system influenced the cultural ethos of the region? (Answer in 150 words) 10
  8. Do you think marriage as a sacrament is losing its value in Modern India? (Answer in 150 words) 10
  9. Explain why suicide among young women is increasing in Indian society. (Answer in 150 words) 10
  10. Child cuddling is now being replaced by mobile phones. Discuss its impact on the socialization of children. (Answer in 150 words) 10
  11. What are the main features of Vedic society and religion? Do you think some of the features are still prevailing in Indian society? (Answer in 250 words) 15
  12. What were the major technological changes introduced during the Sultanate period? How did those technological changes influence the Indian society? (Answer in 250 words) 15
  13. How did the colonial rule affect the tribals in India and what was the tribal response to the colonial oppression? (Answer in 250 words) 15
  14. Comment on the resource potentials of the long coastline of India and highlight the status of natural hazard preparedness in these areas. (Answer in 250 words) 15
  15. Identify and discuss the factors responsible for diversity of natural vegetation in India. Assess the significance of wildlife sanctuaries in rain forest regions of India. (Answer in 250 words) 15
  16. Why did human development fail to keep pace with economic development in India? (Answer in 250 words) 15
  17. From being a net food importer in the 1960s, India has emerged as a net food exporter to the world. Provide reasons. (Answer in 250 words) 15
  18. Does urbanization lead to more segregation and/or marginalization of the poor in Indian metropolises? (Answer in 250 words) 15
  19. Why is caste identity in India both fluid and static? (Answer in 250 words) 15
  20. Discuss the impact of post-liberal economy on ethnic identity and communalism. (Answer in 250 words) 15

This topic of “GS Paper 1 Question Paper (Analysis & Solutions) – UPSC Civil Services Mains 2023” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination, which falls under General Studies Portion.

Analysis & Approach

The questions cover a broad spectrum, ranging from geography, history, to society topics relevant to India. Here’s an analytical approach to each question:

  1. Geographical Factors in Ancient India’s Development:
    • Introduction: Briefly describe Ancient India’s vast geography.
    • Mention factors: Himalayas, River systems, Climate, Topography, Natural resources.
    • Conclude by stating the significance of these factors in shaping civilizations, trade, etc.
  2. Gandhi vs. Tagore on Education and Nationalism:
    • Compare their views on education: Gandhi’s Nai Talim vs. Tagore’s Shantiniketan.
    • Contrast their opinions on nationalism: Gandhi’s mass-based approach vs. Tagore’s world citizenry.
  3. Socio-economic Effects of Railways Globally:
    • Europe: Industrial Revolution, urbanization.
    • Africa: Extraction of resources.
    • Asia: Movement of people, goods, cultural exchange.
    • America: Westward expansion, trade, and development.
  4. Climate Change and Food Security:
    • Describe the adverse effects: Altered rain patterns, unpredictable seasons, loss of arable land.
    • Impact on staple crops.
    • Concluding thoughts on the urgency to adapt.
  5. Crisis of Freshwater Resources:
    • List reasons: Over-extraction, Pollution, Climate change.
    • Emphasize on population growth, industrialization, poor water management.
    • Implications for the future.
  6. Formation of Fjords:
    • Define fjords and describe their formation due to glaciation.
    • Explain their scenic value due to unique landscapes, deep-blue waters, towering cliffs.
  7. South-West Monsoon and ‘Purvaiya’:
    • Explain the wind system.
    • Link to cultural practices, agricultural reliance, festivals.
  8. Marriage as a Sacrament:
    • Describe the traditional view of marriage.
    • Current trends: Rising divorce rates, live-in relationships, individualistic society.
    • Concluding remarks on changing values.
  9. Increase in Suicides among Young Women:
    • List reasons: Societal pressures, mental health stigma, domestic violence.
    • Role of social media, changing family structures, and economic pressures.
  10. Mobile Phones Replacing Child Cuddling:
    • Discuss the rise of technology.
    • Impact: Delayed social skills, increased screen time, dependency on virtual communication.
  11. Vedic Society and Religion:
    • Describe Vedic society: Caste system, rituals.
    • Present-day parallels: Ritual practices, festivals, societal structures.
  12. Technological Changes during the Sultanate Period:
    • Introduce advancements: Architecture, irrigation, military tech.
    • Effects: Socio-cultural amalgamation, agricultural boost, fortified cities.
  13. Colonial Rule and Tribals:
    • Discuss forest acts, land acquisitions.
    • Tribal revolts: Santhal, Munda, and others.
  14. Resource Potential of Indian Coastline:
    • Enumerate resources: Fisheries, ports, tourism.
    • Discuss natural hazard preparedness: Tsunamis, cyclones.
  15. Diversity of Natural Vegetation in India:
    • Factors: Climate variations, topography, soil types.
    • Highlight rainforest sanctuaries: Western Ghats, Northeast.
  16. Human vs. Economic Development in India:
    • Discuss disparities: Income inequality, social indicators lagging.
    • Education, health care challenges.
  17. India’s Food Export Transition:
    • Discuss Green Revolution, agricultural reforms.
    • Global trade dynamics, advancements in agri-tech.
  18. Urbanization and Marginalization:
    • Present urban challenges: Slums, lack of basic amenities.
    • Increasing wealth disparity in cities.
  19. Fluidity and Static Nature of Caste:
    • Discuss historical rigidity.
    • Current dynamics: Political mobilization, inter-caste marriages.
  20. Post-liberal Economy’s Impact:
    • Discuss economic liberalization of 1991.
    • Resultant rise in ethnic identity: Globalization vs. Regionalism.
    • Interplay with communalism: Political scenarios, social fabric changes.

For each topic, it’s essential to adhere to the word count and ensure the answer is concise, relevant, and well-structured. Always start with a brief introduction, followed by the main content, and end with a conclusion or forward-looking statement.

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