- Rising temperatures: Higher average temperatures negatively impact crop yields, particularly in Africa, and cause heat stress in livestock, reducing productivity[1&5].
- Changing precipitation patterns: Altered rainfall patterns lead to droughts and floods, affecting crop production and food availability. Extreme weather events are expected to become more frequent and severe in regions like Africa1.
- Losses in fisheries: Climate change causes higher losses in fisheries compared to agriculture, with most locations experiencing simultaneous losses in both sectors2. Warmer water temperatures also cause shifts in habitat ranges of fish and shellfish species, affecting food supply.
- Impacts on fruit and vegetable production: Fruit and vegetable production, essential for healthy diets, is vulnerable to climate change. Declines in yields and crop suitability are projected under higher temperatures, especially in tropical and semi-tropical regions5.
- Deforestation-driven changes: Deforestation in tropical regions can lead to warmer, drier conditions, affecting agricultural productivity and increasing the risk of heat extremes and reduced rainfall6.
Adaptation strategies: Farmers in tropical countries adopt various climate change adaptation practices, positively affecting food security7. However, more efforts are needed to develop and implement effective adaptation and mitigation measures to combat the negative impacts of climate change on food security.
In conclusion, climate change poses significant challenges to food security in tropical countries, impacting agriculture and food production systems. Developing and implementing effective adaptation and mitigation measures, promoting diverse livelihood strategies, and enhancing the resilience of food production systems are crucial to address these challenges.