From being a net food importer in the 1960s, India has emerged as a net food exporter to the world. Provide reasons. (250 words)

India has transformed from being a net food importer in the 1960s to a net food exporter today. India’s food grain production has reached record levels, with 315.7 million tonnes produced in 2021-22. This increase in production has allowed the country to meet domestic demand and export surplus food grains. This shift can be attributed to several factors:

  1. Green Revolution: The Green Revolution, which began in the 1960s, played a significant role in increasing agricultural productivity through the adoption of high-yielding variety seeds, mechanized farm tools, irrigation facilities, pesticides, and fertilizers. This led to a substantial increase in food grain production, enabling India to achieve self-sufficiency.
  2. Diversification of agriculture: India has diversified its agricultural sector, focusing not only on cereal crops but also on horticulture, livestock, and dairy production. This diversification has contributed to the country’s food security and export potential.
  3. Government policies and support: The Indian government has implemented various policies and support measures to boost agricultural productivity and food security. These include the National Agricultural Policy (2000), which aimed to achieve a growth rate of over 4% per annum in the agricultural sector.
  4. Export competitiveness: India has developed export competitiveness in a range of specialized agricultural and related products, making it the world’s 9th largest exporter. Leading exports include Basmati rice, spices, pulses, and buffalo meat.
  5. Food processing industry: The food processing industry in India has been growing at an average annual growth rate of around 8.3% over the last five years, contributing to the country’s food export potential.
  6. Improved agricultural practices: India has seen improvements in agricultural practices, such as the use of better seeds, irrigation, and farming techniques, leading to increased yields.

In conclusion, India’s transformation from a net food importer to a net food exporter can be attributed to the Green Revolution, diversification of agriculture, increased food grain production, supportive government policies, export competitiveness, growth in the food processing industry, and improved agricultural practices. These factors have collectively contributed to India’s self-sufficiency in food production and its ability to export surplus food grains to the world.

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