With reference to Indian history, consider the following texts:

  1. Nettipakarana
  2. Parishishtaparvan
  3. Avadanashataka
  4. Trishashtilakshana Mahapurana

Which of the above are Jaina texts?

(a) 1, 2 and 3

(b) 2 and 4 only

(c) 1, 3 and 4

(d) 2, 3 and 4


The correct answer is (b) 2 and 4 only. Here is the explanation for each option:

  1. Nettipakarana: This text is related to Buddhism’s Pali Canon and is a mythological Buddhist scripture, sometimes included in the Khuddaka Nikaya of Theravada Buddhism’s Pali Canon. Therefore, it is not a Jaina text.
  2. Parishishtaparvan: This text, also known as Sthaviravalicharitra, is a 12th-century Sanskrit mahakavya by Hemachandra, which details the histories of the earliest Jain teachers. Thus, it is a Jaina text.
  3. Avadanashataka: This text is a part of Buddhist literature, correlating past lives’ virtuous deeds to subsequent lives’ events. It is not a Jaina text.
  4. Trishashtilakshana Mahapurana: This major Jain text was composed largely by Acharya Jinasena during the rule of Rashtrakuta ruler Amoghavarsha and completed by his pupil Gunabhadra in the 9th century CE. It is a Jaina text.

Learn more

  • Jaina texts: Jainism is an ancient Indian religion that emphasizes non-violence, self-control, and spiritual development through right knowledge, right faith, and right conduct. Jaina texts are religious scriptures and literature that form the basis of Jainism’s teachings and practices.
  • Parishishtaparvan: This text by Hemachandra provides a detailed account of the lives and teachings of Jain Tirthankaras and other prominent Jain figures. It also covers the history of the Maurya Empire and the role of Jainism in its development.
  • Trishashtilakshana Mahapurana: This text by Jinasena and Gunabhadra is an encyclopedic account of the Jain tradition, covering the lives of Jain Tirthankaras, prominent Jain figures, and various aspects of Jain philosophy and practices.

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