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Biology Notes with Mind Maps for NEET (UG), UPSC & State PSC

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  1. 1. DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD [COMPLETED]

    1.1 What is Living?
  2. 1.2 Biodiversity
  3. 1.3 Three Domains of Life
  4. 1.4 Systematics
  5. 1.5 Taxonomy
  6. 1.6 Taxonomic Aids
  7. 1.7 Introduction to Classification-Five Kingdom Classification
  8. 1.8 Kingdom Monera- Introduction and General Characteristics
  9. 1.9 Bacteria
  10. 1.10 Kingdom Protista
  11. 1.11 Fungi
  12. 1.12 Viruses - Introduction & Classification
  13. 1.13 Subviral Agents
  14. 1.14 Kingdom Plantae
    5 Submodules
  15. 1.15 Kingdom Animalia (Introduction and Classification)
  16. 1.16 Non-Chordates
  17. 1.17 Chordates
  18. 2. STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS [COMPLETED]
    2.1 Introduction to Tissue
  19. 2.2 Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plant
    6 Submodules
  20. 2.3 Animal Tissue
  21. 3. CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION [COMPLETED]
    3.1 Cell Theory and basic structure of cell
  22. 3.2 Comparison between (plant and animal cell) and (prokaryotes and eukaryotes)
  23. 3.3 Membrane (cell membrane and cell wall)
  24. 3.4 Cytoplasm
  25. 3.5 Nucleus
  26. 3.6 Biomolecules
  27. 3.7 Importance of water
  28. 3.8 Proteins
  29. 3.9 Carbohydrates
  30. 3.10 Lipids
  31. 3.11 Nucleic acids
  32. 3.12 Introduction to enzymes
  33. 3.13 Factors affecting enzyme action and enzyme inhibition
  34. 3.14 The Cell Cycle
  35. 3.15 Mitosis and Meiosis
  36. 4. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
    4.1 Transport in plants
    6 Submodules
  37. 4.2 Mineral Nutrition
    4 Submodules
  38. 4.3 Photosynthesis: Definition, Site, Pigments, Phases, Photophosphorylation, Photorespiration, Factors
  39. 4.4 Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient
  40. 4.5 Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases; Conditions; Differentiation; Sequence; Growth Regulators; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
  41. 5. Human Physiology
    5.1 Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation; Caloric value; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders
Module 8 of 41
In Progress

1.8 Kingdom Monera- Introduction and General Characteristics

INTRODUCTION

  • Kingdom Monera comprises the simplest organisms of Earth and are unicellular and microscopic.
  • Monera consists of
  1. Bacteria
  2. Mycoplasma
  3. Actinomycetes
  4. Cyanobacteria
  5. Rickettsia

SALIENT FEATURES OF MONERA

  • Prokaryotes are simple organisms that lack a true nucleus and majority of the membrane-bound organelles like endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes etc.
  • DNA of prokaryotes is termed as nucleoid and their DNA is arranged in the form of a single chromosome.
  • They reproduce mainly by asexual means mainly binary fission.

BACTERIA

  • Bacteria were the first organisms to survive on planet earth after life originated around 3.5 billion years ago.
  • They are unicellular organisms, structurally simple and microscopic and range in size from 0.1 to 10 microns.
  • Bacteria are prokaryotic and do not possess any membrane-bounded nucleus or other intracellular organelles.
  • Their genetic material is structured into a single circular chromosome containing deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and reproduces through conjugation and binary fission.

ACTINOMYCETES

  • The Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria which form branched filamentous hyphae and are usually rod shaped having a filamentous and branched structure.
  • Actinomycetes are most abundant in soil and marine habitat.

MYCOPLASMAS

  • Mycoplasmas are ubiquitous intracellular gram negative type bacteria.
  • Majority of mycoplasma organisms are motile, and they use their gliding motility for movement instead of pili or flagella.
  • Instead of a cell wall, they contain a three-layered membrane, containing sterol, which is taken up from the environment.

CYANOBACTERIA

  • Cyanobacteria are more commonly known as Blue-Green Algae
  • Blue-green algae are the most primitive organisms. They are not considered “true-algae”. They resemble bacteria in structure and therefore were placed in kingdom Monera.
  • They are single-celled organisms and thus contain a simple structure.
  • Cyanobacteria reproduce asexually, either through binary fission or multiple fission.

Rickettsia

  • Rickettsia species are small, Gram-negative bacilli
  • They consist of the Genera Rickettsiae, Ehrlichia, Orientia, and 
  • They cause diseases in humans such as typhus, Boutonneuse fever, African tick bite fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever etc.
  • Rickettsia can be classified into three main groups, on the basis of serology and DNA sequencing:
  1. Spotted fever
  2. Typhus
  3. Scrub typhus.

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