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Biology Notes with Mind Maps for NEET (UG), UPSC & State PSC

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    1.1 What is Living?
  2. 1.2 Biodiversity
  3. 1.3 Three Domains of Life
  4. 1.4 Systematics
  5. 1.5 Taxonomy
  6. 1.6 Taxonomic Aids
  7. 1.7 Introduction to Classification-Five Kingdom Classification
  8. 1.8 Kingdom Monera- Introduction and General Characteristics
  9. 1.9 Bacteria
  10. 1.10 Kingdom Protista
  11. 1.11 Fungi
  12. 1.12 Viruses - Introduction & Classification
  13. 1.13 Subviral Agents
  14. 1.14 Kingdom Plantae
    5 Submodules
  15. 1.15 Kingdom Animalia (Introduction and Classification)
  16. 1.16 Non-Chordates
  17. 1.17 Chordates
    2.1 Introduction to Tissue
  19. 2.2 Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plant
    6 Submodules
  20. 2.3 Animal Tissue
    3.1 Cell Theory and basic structure of cell
  22. 3.2 Comparison between (plant and animal cell) and (prokaryotes and eukaryotes)
  23. 3.3 Membrane (cell membrane and cell wall)
  24. 3.4 Cytoplasm
  25. 3.5 Nucleus
  26. 3.6 Biomolecules
  27. 3.7 Importance of water
  28. 3.8 Proteins
  29. 3.9 Carbohydrates
  30. 3.10 Lipids
  31. 3.11 Nucleic acids
  32. 3.12 Introduction to enzymes
  33. 3.13 Factors affecting enzyme action and enzyme inhibition
  34. 3.14 The Cell Cycle
  35. 3.15 Mitosis and Meiosis
    4.1 Transport in plants
    6 Submodules
  37. 4.2 Mineral Nutrition
    4 Submodules
  38. 4.3 Photosynthesis: Definition, Site, Pigments, Phases, Photophosphorylation, Photorespiration, Factors
  39. 4.4 Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient
  40. 4.5 Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases; Conditions; Differentiation; Sequence; Growth Regulators; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
  41. 5. Human Physiology
    5.1 Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation; Caloric value; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders


  • A typical fungal cell is eukaryotic and consists of a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles.
  • The kingdom Fungi comprise an enormous variety of living organisms which are generally referred to as Ascomycota, or true Fungi.
  • Organisms such as Edible mushrooms, yeasts, black molds, and Penicilliumnotatum, are all members of the kingdom Fungi, which have its place in the domain Eukarya.
  • Fungi are more closely associated to animals than plants.


  • Fungi are eukaryotic organisms, have a true nucleus enclosed in nuclear membrane and membrane bound organelles.
  • Fungal cells are surrounded by cell walls. Their cell wall is made up of chitin.
  • Fungi undergo the phenomenon of alternation of generation. They comprise both haploid and diploid stages in their life cycle.
  • Hyphae (singular hypa) are the branching filamentous structures of a fungus that bear the spores. Hyphae can grow and result in a network called a mycelium.
  • Reproduction: Fungi can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Both processes involve spore formation. Sexual spores are referred to as Oospores, Zygospores, Ascospores, Basidiospores, etc. Asexual spores include Sporangiospores, Aplanospores, Zoospores, Conidia, etc.



  • Fungi reproduce by both sexual an asexual means.


Fungi reproduce asexually by following methods

  1. Fragmentation
  2. Budding
  3. Spores


  • An asexual process in multi-cellular organisms in which the organism give rise to offspring by splitting into fragments.
  • During Fragmentation, a fungal mycelium splits into pieces and the component grows into a separate mycelium. Fragments of hyphae can grow new colonies.


  • During budding, an outgrowth forms on the side of the cell. The nucleus of the parent cell divides with the process of mitosis. One of the daughter nuclei migrates to the bud while the other remains in the parent cell.
  • The bud then detaches itself from the parent cell and forms a fully functional daughter cell.
  • This type of asexual reproduction is observed in yeast and some filamentous fungi.


  • Asexual spores are released by one parent only and are genetically identical to that parent. Spores help fungi to expand their distribution and colonize new environments.
  • They may be released from the parent into a special reproductive sac called a sporangium.


  • Sexual reproduction is the cause of genetic variation in a population of fungi.
  • There are two mating types;
  1. Homothallic
  2. Heterothallic
  • When both mating types occur in the same mycelium, it is called homothallic, or self-fertile. Heterothallic mycelia involve two different, but compatible, mycelia to reproduce sexually.
  • The sexual reproduction of fungi occurs in following three stages:
  • Plasmogamy: During Plasmogamy, two haploid cells fuse and form a dikaryotic stage where two haploid nuclei coexist in a single cell.
  • Karyogamy: During karyogamy (“nuclear marriage”), the haploid nuclei fuse to produce a diploid zygote nucleus.
  • Meiosis: meiosis occurs in the gametangia organs, where gametes of different mating types are produced. During this stage, spores are dispersed into the environment.


  • The members of Phycometes are found in the aquatic habitats and on decaying woods in moist and damp places.
  • The mycelium of this type of Fungi is aseptate and coenocytic.
  • zygospores are formed by two gametes. The gametes can be isogamous or anisogamous/ oogamous.
  • Examples: Rhizopus, Albugo


  • The ascomycetes are also known as sac fungi. They can be either unicellular or multi-cellular.
  • They are saprophytic, decomposers, parasitic or coprophilous means grows on dung.
  • The mycelium is branched and separate.
  • Conidia are the asexual pores produced on the conidiophores, which is known as special mycelium.
  • The sexual spores are called ascoposres which are produced in asci, means singular ascus. The asci are arranged on ascocarps.
  • Examples: Aspergillus, Neurospora, Claviceps

Unicellular ascomycetes: Sacharomyces (Yeast), Multicellular ascomycetes: Penicillium.


  • The members of Basidiomycetes grow in soil, on logs and tree stumps and in living plant bodies as parasites.
  • The mycelium is branched and septate. Though the asexual spores are not found, but fragmentation is common.
  • The sex organs are absent, though plasmogamy is brought about by fusion of two somatic cells or two vegetative cells of genotypes or vegetative strains. This gives rise to basidium.
  • Karyogamy and meiosis takes place in the basidium producing four basidiospores.
  • Examples: Agaricus, Puccinia, Ustilago


  • They are known as imperfect fungi as the vegetative or asecual phases are only known in this case of the fungi.
  • At first when it was identified the sexual forms were discovered but the asexual and vegetative phases have been given one name. later though, the linkage was established and the fungi were moved out of dueteromycetes.
  • They reproduce only by asexual mode of reproduction called conidia.
  • The mycelium is branched and septate.
  • Examples: Trichoderma, Alternaria, Colletotrichum


  • Fungi are important decomposers in most ecosystems.
  • Fungi are responsible for most of the recycling in the environment which returns dead material to the soil in a form in which it can be reused.
  • Fungi, as food, are agents of fermentation in the production of bread, cheese, alcoholic beverages, and numerous other food preparations.
  • Secondary metabolites of fungi such as antibiotics and anticoagulants are utilized as medicines.
  • Fungi are used as model organisms for the study of eukaryotic genetics and metabolism.


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