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Biology Notes with Mind Maps for NEET (UG), UPSC & State PSC

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  1. 1. DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD [COMPLETED]

    1.1 What is Living?
  2. 1.2 Biodiversity
  3. 1.3 Three Domains of Life
  4. 1.4 Systematics
  5. 1.5 Taxonomy
  6. 1.6 Taxonomic Aids
  7. 1.7 Introduction to Classification-Five Kingdom Classification
  8. 1.8 Kingdom Monera- Introduction and General Characteristics
  9. 1.9 Bacteria
  10. 1.10 Kingdom Protista
  11. 1.11 Fungi
  12. 1.12 Viruses - Introduction & Classification
  13. 1.13 Subviral Agents
  14. 1.14 Kingdom Plantae
    5 Submodules
  15. 1.15 Kingdom Animalia (Introduction and Classification)
  16. 1.16 Non-Chordates
  17. 1.17 Chordates
  18. 2. STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS [COMPLETED]
    2.1 Introduction to Tissue
  19. 2.2 Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plant
    6 Submodules
  20. 2.3 Animal Tissue
  21. 3. CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION [COMPLETED]
    3.1 Cell Theory and basic structure of cell
  22. 3.2 Comparison between (plant and animal cell) and (prokaryotes and eukaryotes)
  23. 3.3 Membrane (cell membrane and cell wall)
  24. 3.4 Cytoplasm
  25. 3.5 Nucleus
  26. 3.6 Biomolecules
  27. 3.7 Importance of water
  28. 3.8 Proteins
  29. 3.9 Carbohydrates
  30. 3.10 Lipids
  31. 3.11 Nucleic acids
  32. 3.12 Introduction to enzymes
  33. 3.13 Factors affecting enzyme action and enzyme inhibition
  34. 3.14 The Cell Cycle
  35. 3.15 Mitosis and Meiosis
  36. 4. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
    4.1 Transport in plants
    6 Submodules
  37. 4.2 Mineral Nutrition
    4 Submodules
  38. 4.3 Photosynthesis: Definition, Site, Pigments, Phases, Photophosphorylation, Photorespiration, Factors
  39. 4.4 Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient
  40. 4.5 Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases; Conditions; Differentiation; Sequence; Growth Regulators; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
  41. 5. Human Physiology
    5.1 Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation; Caloric value; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders
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I. Introduction

Transpiration is a biological process by which plants lose water in the form of water vapor from their aerial parts, mainly through the stomata of leaves. It is an essential process for plant growth and development, as it helps in the absorption of nutrients and minerals from the soil. In this module, we will discuss the mechanism, and significance of transpiration in plants.

II. Stomata

Definition of Stomata

Stomata are microscopic pores or openings found on the surface of leaves and sometimes stems of plants. They are surrounded by two specialized cells called guard cells, which regulate the opening and closing of the stomata in response to various environmental stimuli.

Structure of Stomata

Stomata consist of two specialized cells called guard cells, which are kidney-shaped and contain chloroplasts. The guard cells are responsible for regulating the opening and closing of the stomata. The stomata are surrounded by two or more subsidiary cells, which provide support to the guard cells.

Types of Stomata

There are two main types of stomata found in plants:

  • Anomocytic stomata: These stomata have irregular-shaped subsidiary cells that are not clearly defined.
  • Paracytic stomata: These stomata have two or more subsidiary cells that are parallel to the guard cells.

Functions of Stomata

Stomata play several important functions in plants, including:

  • Gas exchange: Stomata allow for the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the release of oxygen (O2) and water vapor (H2O) during photosynthesis.
  • Transpiration: Stomata are responsible for the loss of water vapor from the plant through transpiration. This helps in the cooling of the plant and the transport of water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves.
  • Regulation of water loss: Stomata help in regulating the loss of water from the plant by opening and closing in response to various environmental stimuli. This helps in conserving water and preventing the plant from drying out.
  • Defense against pathogens: Stomata can close in response to pathogen attack, preventing the entry of pathogens into the plant.

III. Mechanism of Stomatal Opening and Closure

Turgor Pressure and its Role in Stomatal Opening and Closure

Turgor pressure is the pressure exerted by the cell contents against the cell wall. In the case of guard cells, turgor pressure plays a crucial role in the opening and closing of stomata. When the guard cells are turgid, they expand, causing the stomata to open. When the guard cells lose water, they become flaccid, leading to stomatal closure.The mechanism of stomatal opening and closure is as follows:

  • When the guard cells absorb water, they become turgid, and their shape changes from a kidney shape to a dumbbell shape.
  • The change in shape of the guard cells causes the stomata to open, allowing for the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) and the release of oxygen (O2) and water vapor (H2O).
  • When the guard cells lose water, they become flaccid, and their shape changes back to a kidney shape.
  • The change in shape of the guard cells causes the stomata to close, preventing the loss of water vapor from the plant.

Factors Affecting Turgor Pressure

The turgor pressure of the guard cells is influenced by various factors, including:

  • Light: Light is one of the most important factors affecting stomatal opening and closure. Blue light triggers the opening of stomata, while red light triggers the closure of stomata.
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration: High levels of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere cause stomata to close, reducing the loss of water vapor from the plant.
  • Water availability: Water availability is a crucial factor affecting the turgor pressure of the guard cells. When water is scarce, the guard cells lose water, become flaccid, and close the stomata to prevent water loss.
  • Temperature: High temperatures cause the guard cells to lose water, leading to stomatal closure.
  • Humidity: High humidity reduces the rate of transpiration, leading to stomatal closure.

Role of Guard Cells in Stomatal Opening and Closure

Guard cells are specialized cells that surround the stomata and regulate their opening and closure. They are responsible for maintaining the turgor pressure of the stomata. When the guard cells absorb water, they become turgid, causing the stomata to open. When the guard cells lose water, they become flaccid, causing the stomata to close.The mechanism of stomatal opening and closure is regulated by various signaling pathways, including:

  • Blue light signaling: Blue light triggers the opening of stomata by activating the H+-ATPase pump in the guard cells, which leads to the uptake of potassium ions (K+) and the release of hydrogen ions (H+) into the cell wall.
  • Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling: ABA is a stress hormone that triggers the closure of stomata by activating the anion channels in the guard cells, which leads to the efflux of anions and the uptake of potassium ions (K+) into the cell wall.

IV. Regulation of Transpiration

Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from plants to the atmosphere through the stomata of leaves. It is a crucial process for plant survival and plays an important role in maintaining plant water balance. In this article, we will discuss the importance of regulating transpiration, the factors affecting stomatal opening and closure, and the role of light, air, water availability, and surface area of leaves in regulating transpiration.

Importance of Regulating Transpiration

Regulating transpiration is important for the following reasons:

  • Plant survival: Transpiration plays a crucial role in plant survival, especially during heat and drought stress. Too much water loss can leave the plants dehydrated, while too little water loss can lead to waterlogging and root rot.
  • Nutrient uptake: Transpiration helps in the uptake of nutrients from the soil by creating a negative pressure gradient that pulls water and nutrients from the soil into the roots.
  • Cooling effect: Transpiration helps in cooling the plant by evaporative cooling. This prevents the plant from overheating and reduces the risk of damage due to high temperatures.

Factors Affecting Stomatal Opening and Closure

Stomatal opening and closure are regulated by various factors, including:

  • Light: Blue light triggers the opening of stomata, while red light triggers the closure of stomata.
  • Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration: High levels of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere cause stomata to close, reducing the loss of water vapor from the plant.
  • Water availability: Water availability is a crucial factor affecting the turgor pressure of the guard cells. When water is scarce, the guard cells lose water, become flaccid, and close the stomata to prevent water loss.
  • Temperature: High temperatures cause the guard cells to lose water, leading to stomatal closure.
  • Humidity: High humidity reduces the rate of transpiration, leading to stomatal closure.

Role of Light, Air, Water Availability, and Surface Area of Leaves in Regulating Transpiration

The following factors play a crucial role in regulating transpiration:

  • Light: Light is one of the most important factors affecting stomatal opening and closure. Blue light triggers the opening of stomata, while red light triggers the closure of stomata. Plants growing in low light conditions have fewer stomata and lower rates of transpiration than plants growing in high light conditions.
  • Air: Air movement around the plant can increase the rate of transpiration by removing the water vapor from the boundary layer around the leaf surface. This is why plants growing in windy conditions have higher rates of transpiration than plants growing in still air.
  • Water availability: Water availability is a crucial factor affecting the rate of transpiration. When water is scarce, the rate of transpiration decreases, and the stomata close to prevent water loss. Plants growing in dry conditions have smaller leaves and fewer stomata to reduce water loss.
  • Surface area of leaves: The surface area of leaves is directly proportional to the rate of transpiration. Plants with larger leaves have higher rates of transpiration than plants with smaller leaves.

V. Significance of Transpiration

Transpiration is the process by which water is lost from plants to the atmosphere through the stomata of leaves. It is a crucial process for plant growth and development and has various applications in agriculture and environmental studies. In this article, we will discuss the importance of transpiration in plant growth and development and the applications of transpiration in agriculture and environmental studies.

Importance of Transpiration in Plant Growth and Development

Transpiration is important for the following reasons:

  • Water and nutrient uptake: Transpiration helps in the uptake of water and nutrients from the soil by creating a negative pressure gradient that pulls water and nutrients from the soil into the roots.
  • Cooling effect: Transpiration helps in cooling the plant by evaporative cooling. This prevents the plant from overheating and reduces the risk of damage due to high temperatures.
  • Maintaining plant water balance: Transpiration plays a crucial role in maintaining plant water balance. The rate at which water moves through the plants due to transpiration plays an important role in maintaining plant water balance.

Applications of Transpiration in Agriculture and Environmental Studies

Transpiration has various applications in agriculture and environmental studies, including:

  • Crop management: Transpiration is an important factor in crop management. It helps in determining the water requirements of crops and the optimal time for irrigation. By monitoring the rate of transpiration, farmers can adjust the irrigation schedule to ensure that the crops receive the right amount of water.
  • Environmental studies: Transpiration plays an important role in the water cycle and the global climate. It is an important factor in the exchange of water and energy between the land surface and the atmosphere. By monitoring the rate of transpiration, scientists can better understand the water cycle and the impact of land use changes on the environment.
  • Plant physiology: Transpiration is an important process in plant physiology. It helps in the uptake of nutrients from the soil, the cooling of the plant, and the maintenance of plant water balance. By studying the process of transpiration, scientists can better understand the physiology of plants and develop strategies to improve plant growth and productivity.

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