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Biology Notes with Mind Maps for NEET (UG), UPSC & State PSC

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    1.1 What is Living?
  2. 1.2 Biodiversity
  3. 1.3 Three Domains of Life
  4. 1.4 Systematics
  5. 1.5 Taxonomy
  6. 1.6 Taxonomic Aids
  7. 1.7 Introduction to Classification-Five Kingdom Classification
  8. 1.8 Kingdom Monera- Introduction and General Characteristics
  9. 1.9 Bacteria
  10. 1.10 Kingdom Protista
  11. 1.11 Fungi
  12. 1.12 Viruses - Introduction & Classification
  13. 1.13 Subviral Agents
  14. 1.14 Kingdom Plantae
    5 Submodules
  15. 1.15 Kingdom Animalia (Introduction and Classification)
  16. 1.16 Non-Chordates
  17. 1.17 Chordates
    2.1 Introduction to Tissue
  19. 2.2 Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plant
    6 Submodules
  20. 2.3 Animal Tissue
    3.1 Cell Theory and basic structure of cell
  22. 3.2 Comparison between (plant and animal cell) and (prokaryotes and eukaryotes)
  23. 3.3 Membrane (cell membrane and cell wall)
  24. 3.4 Cytoplasm
  25. 3.5 Nucleus
  26. 3.6 Biomolecules
  27. 3.7 Importance of water
  28. 3.8 Proteins
  29. 3.9 Carbohydrates
  30. 3.10 Lipids
  31. 3.11 Nucleic acids
  32. 3.12 Introduction to enzymes
  33. 3.13 Factors affecting enzyme action and enzyme inhibition
  34. 3.14 The Cell Cycle
  35. 3.15 Mitosis and Meiosis
    4.1 Transport in plants
    6 Submodules
  37. 4.2 Mineral Nutrition
    4 Submodules
  38. 4.3 Photosynthesis: Definition, Site, Pigments, Phases, Photophosphorylation, Photorespiration, Factors
  39. 4.4 Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient
  40. 4.5 Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases; Conditions; Differentiation; Sequence; Growth Regulators; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
  41. 5. Human Physiology
    5.1 Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation; Caloric value; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders


  • Non-chordates are animals lacking a Notochord.
  • Notochord is a rod-like elastic structure which gives rise to the vertebral column. Hence, non-chordates do not possess a vertebral column and are termed as invertebrates.


All the organisms included in following phylums of animal kingdom are non-chordates:

  1. Phylum Porifera
  2. Phylum Coelenterata (Cnidaria)
  3. Phylum Platyhelminthes
  4. Phylum Nematoda
  5. Phylum Annelida
  6. Phylum Arthropoda
  7. Phylum Mollusca
  8. Phylum Echinodermata
  9. Phylum Hemichordata


  • Members of this phylum are pore-bearing animals, commonly known as the sponges.
  • Poriferans show cellular aggregate level of organization- the cells are grouped into an aggregation. They lack tissue organization and have no organs.
  • Sponges lack symmetry and therefore are termed as asymmetrical.
  • They possess a vase or cylinder-like body.
  • Their body wall is formed of an outer layer and inner layer and encloses a hollow body cavity known as
  • The outer layer is the pinacoderm, which consists of cells called pinacocytes.
  • The inner layer is choanoderm made of flagellated collar cells called choanocytes.
  • The body surface is perforated due to the presence of numerous pores. These pores are termed as Ostia, through which water enters the body of sponges.
  • All members of Porifera range in size from a few millimeters wide to more than one meter tall.
  • They are macroscopic and can be seen with a naked eye.
  • There is no definite nervous system in Poriferans.
  • Sponges reproduce both by asexual and sexual means.


  • Sycon: It is a typical marine sponge.
  • Leucosolenia: Sponge consisting of assembly of erected tubes.


  • Coelenterata consists of aquatic animals found in marine as well as in freshwater habitats. Members of this phyla display a tissue level of organization.
  • Body of the animals under this phylum shows radial symmetry.
  • Coelenterates are diploblastic-composed of two germ layers namely the ectoderm and the endoderm.
  • They reproduce predominantly by asexual means (budding) though sexual reproduction is also present.
  • Coelenterates are also known as Cnidarians due to the presence of special cells called Cnidocytes.
  • They lack a nervous and a circulatory system. Excretion and respiration occurs through simple diffusion.
  • Coelenterates are found in two basic forms:
  1. Polyps
  2. Medusae
  • They have alternation of generation in their life cycle.
  • Coelenterates exhibit polymorphism( occurrence of structurally and functionally more than two different types of individuals from the same organism)
  • Specialized polyps in the coelenterates form coral reefs.


  • Hydra: A freshwater – coelenterate only exists in polyp form.
  • Obelia: A marine colonial coelenterate that exhibits alternation of generations.


  • Platyhelminthes are soft and dorso-ventrally compressed organisms.
  • They are also known as flatworms.
  • They are triploblastic-consisting of three germ layers namely, the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm.
  • Platyhelminthes are acoelomates (lacking a coelom/body cavity).
  • The body of these organisms is un-segmented, however they exhibit bilateral symmetry.
  • They have an organ level of organization.
  • They have a poorly developed, branching sac-like digestive system.
  • The excretory system of platyhelminthes consists of branching tubes having bulb-like cells at the ends called flame cells.
  • Flatworms have a well-developed nervous system however; respiratory and circulatory systems are absent. Respiration occurs by simple diffusion through the body
  • The free living forms of Platyhelminthes are motile and movement occurs by the help of cilia.
  • Reproduction occurs by both sexual and asexual means.
  • Sexual species are termed as hermaphrodite i.e. both male and female reproductive organs are present in the same individual.
  • They possess the ability to regenerate.


  • Dugesia (planaria): a free-living flatworm with a ciliated outer surface.
  • Fasciola (Liver Fluke): an endo-parasite of sheep and occasionally in human beings.


  • The name nematode means “pointed ends”. Nematoda is also known as Aschelminthes.
  • The animals included in this phylum have an elongated, cylindrical, worm like body with pointed ends.
  • They possess a tissue level of organization. They are triploblastic pseudocoelomates.
  • They possess an unsegmented body and display bilateral symmetry.
  • They occur either as free living or parasitic.
  • The digestive system has an alimentary canal with two openings i.e. mouth and anus.
  • They have sensory structures in the form of sensory papillae which are present on the mouth end.
  • Locomotion in nematodes occurs through undulating waves of contraction and relaxation.
  • The circulatory and respiratory systems are absent.
  • The members of this phylum are parasites and cause diseases in humans and plants.


  • Ascaris lumbricoides: An intestinal parasite of man
  • Enterobius Vermicularis (pinworm): Parasites of the human large intestine.


  • Phylum Annelida mainly consists of segmented worms
  • The animals are triploblastic coelomates.
  • They have a segmented body and exhibit bilateral symmetry.
  • They possess a well-developed circulatory and digestive system.
  • Digestive system is in the form of an alimentary canal which has two openings, mouth and anus.
  • Excretion occurs with the help of specialized structures called nephridia.
  • A well-developed central nervous system is present consisting of a simple brain and a solid double, longitudinal, ventral nerve cord.
  • Annelids are the first group of invertebrates which occupy a closed circulatory system.
  • They lack a respiratory system; exchange of gasses occurs through the body surface.
  • They possess the ability of regeneration.
  • Circular and longitudinal muscles in the body wall help in the locomotion.


  • Nereis: A marine water annelid.
  • Earthworms: Annelids that are found in damp soil.


  • Arthropods are triploblastic animals.
  • They possess a segmented body and display bilateral symmetry.
  • They show an organ level of organization.
  • The word “arthron” means joint whereas “pods” means feet. They are named so due to the presence of jointed appendages.
  • These appendages are modified to perform locomotion.
  • Their body is divided into a head, thorax and abdomen.
  • They have an open circulatory system and haemocoel serves as a circulatory fluid.
  • The digestive system is in the form of an alimentary canal with two openings, the mouth and anus.
  • A highly developed excretory system consisting of Malpighian tubules is present in arthropods.
  • The nervous system of arthropods consists of paired ganglia (simple brain) connected to a ventral double nerve cord
  • A pair of compound eyes and antennae forms the sensory organs of arthropods.
  • They undergo metamorphosis which is characterized by abrupt change of form and structure during the life cycle of organisms.


  • Insects such as ants, dragonflies, and bees.
  • Arachnids such as spiders and scorpions.


  • This phylum includes over 50,000 living species and is the second largest phylum of invertebrates. Animals such as snails and clams are included in this phylum.
  • Mollusks are triploblastic coelomates with a bilaterally symmetrical body. Their body is unsegmented and soft.
  • An organ system level of organization is found in these organisms.
  • The body of mollusks is divided into a head, visceral mass, muscular foot and mantle.
  • Mantle is the glandular epithelial envelope covering the body of mollusks which secretes a calcareous shell.
  • They have highly organized and complex digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, nervous and reproductive systems.
  • Their digestive system consists of a gut with two openings, the mouth and the anus.
  • Respiration occurs through the body surface, gills or pulmonary sac.
  • Excretion occurs with the help of paired nephridia.
  • Their organ of locomotion is a muscular foot; however in many species the movement is slow.


  • Helix aspersa: Also known as garden snail.
  • Anodonta: A freshwater mussel.


  • There are over 5,000 known species of echinoderms.
  • They are exclusively marine organisms with a star shaped appearance and are spherical or elongated.
  • Echinoderms are triploblastic coelomates and possess radial symmetry.
  • They display an organ level of organization.
  • They possess an open circulatory system.
  • Respiration occurs through cloacal respiratory trees or gills.
  • They have an unsegmented body with a radial nervous system and an excretory system is absent.
  • They possess the ability of regeneration.
  • The motile species of this phylum move with the help of tube feet

FOR EXAMPLE: Asterias (starfish), Sea urchin, Sea cucumber, Brittle star etc.


  • The members of this phylum show a combination of both invertebrate (Echinoderm) and chordate characteristics.
  • They have a close relationship to chordates and that’s why they are called pre-chordates.
  • They are mostly marine animals and may live solitary or in the form of colonies.
  • They possess a cylindrical and un-segmented body.
  • Their body is divided into an anterior proboscis, collar and trunk.
  • Their body wall is made of unicellular epidermis with mucus-secreting cells.
  • Complete digestive system is present in these organisms.
  • They have a closed circulatory system with a heart and two vessels.
  • Respiration occurs by ill-slits forming a dorsal row behind the collar.
  • The proboscis glands constitute the excretory system in these organisms.


  • Balanoglossus
  • Saccoglossus


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