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Biology Notes with Mind Maps for NEET (UG), UPSC & State PSC

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  1. 1. DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD [COMPLETED]

    1.1 What is Living?
  2. 1.2 Biodiversity
  3. 1.3 Three Domains of Life
  4. 1.4 Systematics
  5. 1.5 Taxonomy
  6. 1.6 Taxonomic Aids
  7. 1.7 Introduction to Classification-Five Kingdom Classification
  8. 1.8 Kingdom Monera- Introduction and General Characteristics
  9. 1.9 Bacteria
  10. 1.10 Kingdom Protista
  11. 1.11 Fungi
  12. 1.12 Viruses - Introduction & Classification
  13. 1.13 Subviral Agents
  14. 1.14 Kingdom Plantae
    5 Submodules
  15. 1.15 Kingdom Animalia (Introduction and Classification)
  16. 1.16 Non-Chordates
  17. 1.17 Chordates
  18. 2. STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS [COMPLETED]
    2.1 Introduction to Tissue
  19. 2.2 Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plant
    6 Submodules
  20. 2.3 Animal Tissue
  21. 3. CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION [COMPLETED]
    3.1 Cell Theory and basic structure of cell
  22. 3.2 Comparison between (plant and animal cell) and (prokaryotes and eukaryotes)
  23. 3.3 Membrane (cell membrane and cell wall)
  24. 3.4 Cytoplasm
  25. 3.5 Nucleus
  26. 3.6 Biomolecules
  27. 3.7 Importance of water
  28. 3.8 Proteins
  29. 3.9 Carbohydrates
  30. 3.10 Lipids
  31. 3.11 Nucleic acids
  32. 3.12 Introduction to enzymes
  33. 3.13 Factors affecting enzyme action and enzyme inhibition
  34. 3.14 The Cell Cycle
  35. 3.15 Mitosis and Meiosis
  36. 4. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
    4.1 Transport in plants
    6 Submodules
  37. 4.2 Mineral Nutrition
    4 Submodules
  38. 4.3 Photosynthesis: Definition, Site, Pigments, Phases, Photophosphorylation, Photorespiration, Factors
  39. 4.4 Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation(anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient
  40. 4.5 Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases; Conditions; Differentiation; Sequence; Growth Regulators; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
  41. 5. Human Physiology
    5.1 Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation; Caloric value; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders

INTRODUCTION

  • Taxonomy is the discipline of naming, describing and classifying organisms. This system of classifying is used for all plants, animals and microorganisms of the world.
  • The term “taxonomy” was devised by AP de Candolle, in 1813.

EXPLANATION

  • Taxonomy deals with;
  1. Principles and procedures used for identification of organisms.
  2. Nomenclature of organisms
  3. Classification of organisms
  4. The natural and phylogenetic relation among organisms.

CLASSICAL TAXONOMY

  • Classical taxonomy is the old method of classifying organisms, in which species is considered as a basic unit.
  • It can be described on the basis of one or few preserved specimens.

MODERN TAXONOMY

  • Modern taxonomy is the concept of systematic which brings out taxonomic affinity (resemblance suggesting a common descent) on the basis of evolutionary, genetic and morphological traits.
  • It is also referred as new systematics or biosystematics
  • The concept of modern taxonomy was given by Julian Huxley in 1940.

WHAT IS TAXON

  • Taxon (plural Taxa), is the unit of classification in the field of taxonomy.
  • A taxon is a group of genetically similar individuals with certain features distinct from the individuals of other groups.

FOR EXAMPLE

  • The living organisms are grouped into species followed by genus, family, order, class etc. Each of these categories represents a taxon.

TAXONOMICAL CATEGORIES

  • A taxonomic category represents the rank of a particular taxon.
  • Organisms are divided into seven major taxonomic categories.
  • This categorical distribution helps in the identification and recognition of various organisms.

KINGDOM

  • The kingdom is the highest rank in biological classification.
  • A kingdom is a group of closely associated organisms sharing a set of distinguished features.

FOR EXAMPLE:

  • All plants have common features of having autotrophic mode of nutrition and the presence of cell wall made up of cellulose. Hence, they are grouped into a single kingdom; Plantae.

PHYLUM/DIVISION

  • The term phylum is used for animals whereas the termed division is used for the classification of plants.
  • A phylum/division is a group of interrelated animal classes. It consists of more than one class sharing some correlated features.

FOR EXAMPLE

  • Birds and mammals are members of the same phylum; Chordata.
  • This is because of shared features i.e. the presence of notochord and dorsal hollow nerve cord.

CLASS

  • The class is a group of related orders.

FOR EXAMPLE

  • Class Mammalia consists of orders carnivora along with primata.
  • The order Carnivora includes animals like tiger, cat, and dog
  • The order Primata consists of monkeys, gorillas and gibbons.

ORDER

  • An order is a group of related families that display a few similar characters.

FOR EXAMPLE

  • Plant families like Convulvaceae, Solanaceae are included in the same order polynomials based on their floral characters. 
  • Similarly, in animals, the families; Felidae and Canidae are included in the same order Carnivore.

FAMILY

  • A family is a group consisting of closely related genera.
  • They have a smaller number of similarities as compared to genus and species.
  • Families are characterized on the basis of both vegetative and reproductive features.

FOR EXAMPLE

  • In plants three different genus Solanum, petunia and the Torah are placed in the same family Solanaceae.
  • In animals, the genus Panthera including lion, tiger, leopard and genus Felisa are classified in the same family Felidae.
  • All the animals like lion, tiger, and cats have some similarities but are different from the traits found in dog hence it is placed in another family Canidae.

GENUS

  • Genus is a group of species which are alike in broad features of their organization but different in certain traits.
  • Genus consists of species which resemble one another in certain correlated characters.
  • Correlated Charactersare the alike or common features which are used in limitation of a taxon above the rank of species.
  • All the species of genus are assumed to have evolved from a common ancestor.

FOR EXAMPLE

  • The plant genus Rosa, consists of more than 100 species of roses.

SPECIES

  • Species are a group of potentially inbreeding population which is reproductively isolated from other such groups.
  • It is the lowest and basic rank in taxonomic classification.
  • It consists of individuals which have fundamental similarities and can be distinguished from other similar species due to difference in morphological characters.

FOR EXAMPLE: Potato is species tuberosum of genus Solanum (Solanum tuberosum)

TAXONOMICAL HIERARCHY

Taxonomic hierarchy is the process of arranging taxonomic categories into successive levels of the biological classification either in a decreasing or an increasing order from kingdom to species and vice versa.

FOR EXAMPLE: The following image represents the taxonomic hierarchy of a red fox.

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