[Newsbits] 5-6.03.2024: Chakshu, Right to Abortion, Gevra Mine & more

newsbits mindmap notes
2023-24 El Niño – One of the Strongest on Record mind map
Recent News
Announcement by World Meteorological Organization
Expected to last until April 2024
Developed rapidly during July-August 2023
Reached moderate strength by September 2023
Likely to peak November - January 2024
Natural climate pattern
Warming of ocean surface in central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean
90% likelihood to persist in upcoming northern hemisphere winter/southern hemisphere summer
Impacts weather patterns
Record high land and sea-surface temperatures since June 2023
2023 on track to be the warmest year on record
Next year may be even warmer
Global impact
Central-eastern tropical Pacific
World Meteorological Organization (WMO)
Secretary-General Prof. Petteri Taalas
Sea surface temperatures rise significantly
From 0.5 °C above average in May to 1.5 °C in September 2023
Early Warnings For All initiative to save lives
Exacerbate extreme weather and climate events
Major impacts on ecosystems and economies
Way Forward
Global Seasonal Climate Updates consider other climate variability modes
North Atlantic Oscillation
Arctic Oscillation
Indian Ocean Dipole

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has announced that the ongoing El Niño event, which started developing rapidly during July-August 2023 and reached moderate strength by September, is expected to be one of the strongest on record. This event is anticipated to last until at least April 2024 and is likely to fuel further increases in global temperatures. It has significant impacts on weather patterns, contributing to extreme weather events such as heatwaves, floods, and droughts across the globe. The rapid development and significant impact of this El Niño event are noteworthy against the backdrop of the climate being changed by human activities, with 2023 on track to be the warmest year on record due to the combined effects of El Niño and high concentrations of greenhouse gases.

This El Niño event underscores the importance of early warning systems and the need for global cooperation in monitoring and preparing for its impacts. It highlights the complex interplay between natural climate patterns and human-induced climate change, with significant implications for weather, ecosystems, and economies worldwide.

India Amends FDI Norms in Space Sector mind map
Recent News
Amended FDI policy
100% FDI for Indian space sector
Up to 74% under Automatic Route
Satellite-manufacturing and operation
Satellite data products
Ground segment and user segment
Beyond 74% requires government approval
Up to 49% under Automatic Route
Creation of spaceports
Launching and receiving spacecraft
Launch vehicles and associated systems or subsystems
Beyond 49% requires government approval
Up to 100% under Automatic Route
Manufacturing of components and systems
Sub-systems for satellites
Ground segment and user segment
Boosts Indian space companies' growth
Encourages private sector participation
Expected to generate employment
Enables modern technology absorption
Makes sector self-reliant
Integrates Indian companies into global value chains
Amendment announced on February 21, 2024
To increase private sector participation
To integrate Indian companies into global value chains
74% FDI for satellite manufacturing and operation
49% FDI for launch vehicles and spaceports
100% FDI for manufacturing satellite components
Indian Space Association
Lt Gen. AK Bhatt, Director General
Praised government's liberal FDI policy
Automatic route for up to 100% FDI in certain areas
Government approval required beyond specified thresholds
Boosts confidence in space industry
Attracts global players in space and satellite domain
Helps achieve global scale of operations
Enhances share of global space economy
Managing strategic interests with liberalized FDI thresholds
Way Forward
Further details and amendments awaited
Foreign Exchange Management (Non-Debt Instrument) Rules, 2019

The recent amendment of FDI norms in India’s space sector marks a significant liberalization aimed at boosting growth and innovation. The new policy allows up to 100% FDI under the automatic route in various categories, promoting private sector participation and integrating Indian companies into global value chains. This move is expected to generate employment, enable technology absorption, and make the sector self-reliant. With the Indian Space Association welcoming these changes, the future looks promising for India’s space industry, potentially enhancing its share in the global space economy.

RBI Pushes for Rupee Payments in Oil Imports mind map
Recent News
India makes first rupee payment for UAE oil
Signalling shift in global trade transactions
Aims for $100 billion two-way trade boom
Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (Cepa) 2022
Boosted UAE-India trade to $85 billion in 2022
India's strategic push
To decouple from dollar
Promote rupee globally
BRICS strategy
Replace dollar as world's reserve currency
RBI allowed rupee payments on July 11, 2022
To internationalise Indian rupee
Diversify oil suppliers
Cut transaction costs
Rupee-based trade settlement
Eliminates need for conversion into other currencies
RBI's mechanism
Allows importers to pay in rupees
Exporters to receive payments in rupees
Banks to open Special Rupee Vostro Accounts
Market determined exchange rates
Settlement in Indian Rupee
Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (Cepa) 2022
India and UAE trade relationship
Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
Indian Oil Corporation
Abu Dhabi National Oil Company
Signing of MoUs
Use of local currencies for transactions
Interlinking payment systems
Prime Minister Narendra Modi's visit to UAE
Saves foreign exchange reserves
Reduces borrowing costs for India
Makes rupee an accepted payment mode globally
Aims for rupee to become a hard currency
Concerns from suppliers
Repatriation of funds
High transactional costs
Way Forward
Encourage other big oil exporters
Like Saudi Arabia and Russia
To accept rupee for trade settlements

The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has made a significant move towards internationalizing the Indian Rupee by allowing rupee payments for oil imports, particularly marking its first-ever rupee payment for crude oil purchased from the UAE. This step signals a potential shift in global trade transactions, traditionally dominated by the dollar, and is aimed at bolstering the booming trade between India and the UAE, with aspirations to surpass the $100 billion mark. The RBI’s initiative is part of a broader strategy, aligned with the BRICS’ objectives, to promote the rupee on a global scale and diversify oil suppliers to reduce transaction costs and dependency on the dollar. This move is supported by the establishment of Special Rupee Vostro Accounts for facilitating trade transactions and is seen as a step towards reducing foreign exchange costs, making the rupee a globally accepted mode of payment, and potentially positioning it as a hard currency. However, this initiative faces challenges, including concerns from suppliers about fund repatriation and transaction costs​​​​.

National Horticulture Fair 2024 mind map
Organized by
In collaboration with
Society for Promotion of Horticulture (SPH)
Technology Business Incubator ICAR-IIHR
ICAR-ATARI Bengaluru
Leading development departments
NextGen Technology Led Horticulture for Sustainable Development
Date and Location
March 5, 2024 - 09:00
To March 7, 2024 - 17:30
ICAR-Indian Institute of Horticultural Research
Hesaraghatta, Bengaluru, Karnataka
Promoting integration of cutting-edge technologies
Smart irrigation
Controlled environment farming
Vertical farming
Explore space use efficiency
Sustainable horticulture practices
Minimizing ecological footprints
Opportunities for Participants
Visit, watch, and learn
Exhibit, sell, and advertise
Categories for participation
Seeds and Planting Materials
Green House
Research and Development
Plant Nutrients
Sthree Shakti Groups
Figs and FPOS
Irrigation Systems
Food Processing and Packaging
Agri Export Services
Financial Institutions
Government and Semi-Government
Tissue Culture Protocols or Plants
IIHR-ATIC Services and Products
Organic Farming and IFS
Market Functionaries
Plant Growth Modifiers
Garden Accessories
Business Incubation Process
Special Events and Workshops
Daily workshops & conferences
Topics include
Urban Horticulture
Terrace/Rooftop/Vertical Gardening
Hi-tech Horticulture
Protected Cultivation & Vertical Farming
Soilless Cultivation
Waste to wealth
Farm Composting /Kitchen Waste
Value addition & waste utilization of flowers
Home scale package & storage of fresh fruits & vegetables
Registration compulsory before February 20
Stall Information
High-Tech Stalls (Structure and Shamiyana)
Nursery Stalls
Food Stalls
GST applicable
Notable Technologies Showcased
Arka Onion Bulblet Planter
Field planting capacity: 0.12 hectare per hour
Labor efficient (35%) and reduced drudgery
Vitamin D Enrichment Technology
Fabricated low-cost device for Elm oyster mushroom
Exposed to 100 watts UV-B light for 10 minutes
Fulfills recommended dietary allowance
Enriched vitamin D levels sustained for 6 months
Established in 1967
Focuses on
Basic, applied, and strategic research on horticultural crops
Working on 58 horticultural crops
13 fruits, 30 vegetables, 10 flowers, 5 medicinal crops
Released 354 varieties
156 technologies
Commercialized 176 technologies to 746 clients
Issued 1,250 licenses
Showcases latest technologies
Demonstrates sustainable development practices
Benefits growers, horticulturists, and other stakeholders
Offers consultancy, training, and workshops
Way Forward
Digital horticulture
Optimizing resource use
Enhancing crop yields
Environment-friendly practices for sustainable development

The National Horticulture Fair 2024, scheduled for March 5-7 in Bengaluru, Karnataka, is a significant event organized by the ICAR-IIHR. It focuses on showcasing next-generation technologies in horticulture aimed at sustainable development. The fair emphasizes the importance of integrating advanced technologies such as smart irrigation, controlled environment farming, and vertical farming into horticultural practices. It offers participants a unique opportunity to learn, exhibit, and engage with experts in various fields, including research and development, organic farming, and food processing. With a rich program that includes special workshops and the presentation of innovative technologies like the Arka Onion Bulblet Planter and Vitamin D Enrichment Technology, the fair aims to educate and inspire farmers, agripreneurs, students, and other stakeholders towards more efficient and sustainable agricultural practices​​​​​​.

/ Mining
Gevra Mine to Become Asia’s Largest Coal Mine mind map
Recent News
Gevra Mine
Achieved 50 million tonnes production
First in India
Expansion to 70 million tonnes planned
Aims to be Asia's largest
Recent developments in 2024
Meeting energy needs
Enhancing coal production capacity
Rs 11,816.40 crore allocated
Rs 7,500 crore already used
Environmental Clearance
For expansion to 70 MT
Currently at 52.5 MT
Public Hearing
Conducted on June 6
Coal Quality
Grade G11, gross calorific value of 4000
Will employ 4,391 persons
First-Mile Connectivity
Through conveyor belts, loaded in rakes through silos
Gevra, Korba, Chhattisgarh, India
South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL)
A subsidiary of Coal India Limited (CIL)
Coal Secretary Amrit Lal Meena
SECL’s CMD Prem Sagar Mishra
Directors S K Pal and S N Kapri
Rail Projects
Reviewed by Coal Secretary
Part of PM Gati Shakti national master plan
Infrastructure Development
Coal transportation infrastructure
Rail corridors under Special Purpose Vehicle model
Supports nation's energy needs
Enhances India's coal industry presence in Asia
Environmental concerns
Need for Environmental Clearance
Protests over land acquisition
Way Forward
Completion of expansion and environmental clearances
Further development of transportation infrastructure

The Gevra Mine, operated by South Eastern Coalfields Limited (SECL), a subsidiary of Coal India Limited (CIL), is on its way to becoming Asia’s largest coal mine. Recent efforts to ramp up its annual production from 50 million tonnes to 70 million tonnes aim to meet the growing energy needs and enhance India’s coal production capacity. This significant expansion involves a hefty investment, addressing environmental clearance, and developing first-mile connectivity to streamline coal transportation. With a focus on infrastructure development, including rail projects as part of the PM Gati Shakti national master plan, the project also faces challenges such as environmental concerns and protests over land acquisition. Nonetheless, the expansion of the Gevra Mine is significant for India’s coal industry, promising to bolster the country’s position in the Asian coal market while ensuring employment opportunities and meeting energy demands​​​​​​​​​​​​​​.

/ Awards & Honors
Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards and Fellowships mind map
Recent News
Vice-President of India conferred Sangeet Natak Akademi Amrit Awards
16th September 2023
Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi
Part of Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav
Honored 84 artists above 75 years without prior national honour
Akademi Fellowships and Awards announced for 2022 & 2023
Announcement made on 28th February 2024
Akademi Fellows (Akademi Ratna)
Six eminent personalities elected
Prestigious and rare honour, limited to 40 at any time
Fellowship purse
Rs. 3,00,000, Tamrapatra, and Angavastram
Akademi Awards (Akademi Puraskar)
92 artists selected across various performing arts
Award purse
Rs. 1,00,000, Tamrapatra, and Angavastram
Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar
80 young artists selected for 2022 & 2023
Award purse
Rs. 25,000, Tamrapatra, and Angavastram
Fields covered
Music, Dance, Theatre, Traditional/Folk/Tribal Music/Dance/Theatre, Puppetry, Overall contribution/scholarship
Awards to be conferred by Hon’ble President of India in a special ceremony
Announcements made for years 2022 & 2023
To honour contributions in the field of performing arts in India
Fellowship purse and awards details provided
Categories detailed
New Delhi, India
Vice-President of India, Shri Jagdeep Dhankhar
Minister of State for Culture and External Affairs, Smt. Meenakashi Lekhi
Artists honoured include
Raghubir Malik, Dina Nath Mishra, Gowri Kuppuswamy, Anasuya Kulkarni, Lalitha Srinivasan, Vilasini Devi Krishnapillai, Smita Shastri, Kumkum Lal, Mahabir Nayak, Harishchandra Prabhakar Borkar, Dharmeswar Nath
Recipients selected by the Akademi’s General Council
Recognizes sustained individual work and contribution
Promotes India's glorious cultural heritage globally
Supports and nurtures artists in a structured manner
Way Forward
Continued promotion and support for performing arts

The Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards and Fellowships represent the highest form of recognition in the field of performing arts in India, including music, dance, and theatre. These accolades are awarded by the Sangeet Natak Akademi, India’s National Academy of Music, Dance, and Drama, which was set up in 1953. The awards aim to honor the exceptional contributions of artists to the cultural heritage of India. The Fellowships (Akademi Ratna) are conferred upon distinguished individuals for their lifetime achievements and are limited to 40 living recipients at any given time, while the Akademi Awards (Akademi Puraskar) recognize excellence in the performing arts. Additionally, the Ustad Bismillah Khan Yuva Puraskar is awarded to young artists to encourage their talent in the field of performing arts. These awards and fellowships not only celebrate the artists’ individual contributions but also aim to inspire future generations to preserve and promote India’s diverse cultural traditions​​​​.

France Enshrines the Right to Abortion in Its Constitution mind map
Recent News
France becomes the first country to enshrine abortion rights in its constitution
March 4, 2024
Response to US Supreme Court's 2022 decision to reverse Roe v. Wade
Fear that abortion rights could be eroded in France as well
Amendment added to Article 34 of the French constitution
"The law determines the conditions in which a woman has the guaranteed freedom to have recourse to an abortion"
Versailles, France
French Parliament
MPs and senators voted 780 against 72
Supported by
Women's rights groups
Prime Minister Gabriel Attal
President Emmanuel Macron
Opposed by
Far-right leader Marine Le Pen
Association of Catholic Families
Pushed by activists after Roe v. Wade reversal
Final vote in a special joint session
Protects women's right to seek an abortion under the constitution
Sends a message of bodily autonomy to women
Makes France a leader in reproductive rights
Criticized as political maneuvering by some
Claimed as unnecessary by opponents
Way Forward
Seen as a step to safeguard against potential future restrictions on abortion
Sparks conversation on reproductive rights globally

France has made history by becoming the first country in the world to constitutionally enshrine the right to abortion, following a decisive vote in Parliament. This landmark decision was influenced by the recent rollback of abortion rights in the United States and aims to safeguard women’s reproductive rights against future challenges. The amendment, added to Article 34 of the French Constitution, ensures women’s freedom to seek an abortion, a move broadly supported across the French political spectrum and by the public. While the decision has been celebrated by women’s rights groups and government officials as a monumental step towards protecting bodily autonomy and reproductive freedom, it has also faced criticism from conservative and anti-abortion groups. Nonetheless, this act solidifies France’s commitment to women’s rights, amidst a global landscape where such freedoms are increasingly under threat.

Chakshu mind map
Recent News
Govt Launches 'Chakshu'
Fraud Reporting
Monitoring Tool
Recovered Rs 1000 Crore
Mar 05, 2024
Launched on Mar 05, 2024
Combat rising incidents
Telecom-related financial frauds
Department of Telecommunications
Digital platform
Report fraudulent calls
Social media messages
Swift Reporting and Action
Citizens report suspicious communications
Platforms like WhatsApp
Trigger re-verification
Disconnection of reported number
Coordinating Intelligence Across Stakeholders
Centralized information exchange
Coordination hub
Involving entities
Telecom companies
Law enforcement agencies
Financial institutions
Social media firms
Identity document issuers
Maintain a repository
Cases related to telecom resource misuse
Create grievance redressal mechanisms
Official app development
Collaborate with private apps
Indian government
Union Minister Ashwini Vaishnaw
Entities allowed to report
Telecom companies
Law enforcement agencies
Financial institutions
Social media firms
Identity document issuers
Reporting through Chakshu platform
Re-verification and disconnection process
Real-time intelligence sharing
Empowers citizens
Enhances inter-agency collaboration
Prevents frauds
Amounting to estimated Rs 1,008 crore
Curtails fraudulent international calls
Strengthen fraud protection capabilities
Not explicitly mentioned
Way Forward
Further collaboration
Stakeholder involvement
Private apps integration
Evolving platform capabilities

The Chakshu platform, launched by the Indian government, represents a significant step in combating telecom-related financial frauds, including fraudulent calls, SMS, and social media messages. It enables citizens and various stakeholders, such as telecom companies, law enforcement agencies, banks, financial institutions, and social media firms, to report suspicious communications. The platform, part of the Department of Telecommunications, offers a swift reporting and action mechanism, triggering re-verification and, if necessary, disconnection of the reported number. It aims to coordinate intelligence across different stakeholders, maintaining a repository of cases related to telecom resource misuse and creating grievance redressal mechanisms for inadvertent disruptions or monetary losses. Launched on March 5, 2024, Chakshu has already shown promise by preventing frauds amounting to an estimated Rs 1,008 crore and significantly reducing fraudulent international calls​​​​.

Moody’s Raises India’s GDP Growth Forecast for 2024 mind map
Recent News
Moody’s upgrade
To 6.8% from 6.1%
Announcement date
March 4, 2024
Stronger-than-expected economic data in 2023
Strong manufacturing and construction activities
High frequency indicators
Robust GST collections, Rising auto sales, Consumer optimism, Double-digit credit growth
Previous estimate
New forecast for 2025
Q4 2023 real GDP growth
8.4% YoY
Full-year growth 2023
Economic momentum
High frequency indicators suggest urban consumption demand remains robust
Expanding manufacturing and services PMIs
Moody's Investors Service
Other forecasts mentioned
Barclays revised forecast to 7.8% for 2023-24
Government capital spending, Thriving manufacturing sector
Signs of private capex cycle picking up
Fastest growing among G-20 economies
Indicates strong economic resilience and momentum
Inflation remains above central bank's 4% target
Moody's does not expect policy easing anytime soon
Way Forward
Continued focus on infrastructure development
Policy continuity post general election
Adaptation to changing geopolitical dynamics due to election year for several G-20 countries

Moody’s Investors Service recently raised India’s GDP growth forecast for the year 2024 to 6.8% from an earlier estimate of 6.1%. This revision is attributed to stronger-than-expected economic performance in 2023, including significant growth in manufacturing and construction activities. India’s economy had shown an impressive growth rate of 8.4% year-over-year in the fourth quarter of 2023, leading to a full-year growth of 7.7%. Factors such as robust Goods and Services Tax collections, rising automobile sales, consumer optimism, and double-digit credit growth have contributed to this positive outlook. Despite the strong growth dynamics, Moody’s highlighted concerns over inflation, which remains above the Reserve Bank of India’s 4% target, suggesting that policy easing may not occur in the near future. Additionally, Moody’s projects that G20 economies will collectively grow by 2.4% in 2024, indicating that India’s growth rate is significantly higher than the average for G20 nations​​​​​​.

/ Banking
RBI Approves Interoperable Net Banking Payments for Merchants mind map
Recent News
RBI Governor approves
NPCI collaboration
Bharat BillPay Ltd (NBBL)
Announcement date
March 4, 2024
Streamline merchant settlements
Reduce Merchant Discount Rate (MDR)
Creation of an interoperable system
Quicker settlements
Direct merchant payments
Facilitates online banking settlement
Platform implementation
Reserve Bank of India (RBI)
Governor Shaktikanta Das
National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI)
Bharat Bill Payment System (BBPS)
Process before implementation
Customer's bank
Merchant's bank
Payment aggregators
New system operation
Direct account dealings
Faster transaction settlements
Enhanced efficiency in payments
Potential reduction in costs for merchants
Implementation hurdles
Technological integration
Compliance with existing infrastructure
Way Forward
Comprehensive rollout plan
Technical support
Awareness campaigns for merchants

The RBI has sanctioned the development of an interoperable net banking payment system by the NPCI in collaboration with Bharat BillPay Ltd (NBBL). This system aims to facilitate quicker settlements and direct payments for merchants, potentially reducing the Merchant Discount Rate (MDR). By allowing for direct dealings between accounts through a new platform, it seeks to streamline the payment process, thereby enhancing efficiency and reducing costs for merchants.

Bharat Semiconductor Research Centre (BSRC) mind map
Recent News
To be launched soon
Work to start in 2024
To make India self-reliant in semiconductor technology
To solidify India's status as a global tech powerhouse
Global standard institution
Academia-Government-Private sector-Start-up partnership
Public-Private Partnership (PPP) mode
Initially co-located with Semiconductor Complex Limited
To be spun off into an independent research organization
Will compete and cooperate with
MIT Microelectronics, USA
ITRI, Taiwan
A vibrant ecosystem
Top-notch universities and colleges
Collaborating on research in diverse areas
System innovation
Rajeev Chandrasekhar
Union Minister of State for Electronics and IT
Ministry of Electronics and IT
Industry experts and academia
International and national semiconductor experts
By creating a vibrant semiconductor ecosystem
Boosting design innovation on chips and devices
Advancements in semiconductor technology to boost
Consumer electronics sectors
Attract investments
Generate job opportunities
Fuel economic growth
Compete with global semiconductor research organizations

The Bharat Semiconductor Research Centre (BSRC) is an upcoming initiative by the Indian government, aimed at establishing India as a leader in semiconductor research and making the nation self-reliant in semiconductor technology. This center is to be a global standard institution formed through a partnership between academia, the government, private sectors, and startups, designed to foster innovation and development in semiconductor technology. Set to begin work in 2024, the BSRC is expected to significantly impact India’s tech industry, advancing sectors like telecommunications, computing, and consumer electronics, while also attracting investments and creating job opportunities​​​​.

/ Corruption
Supreme Court denies Immunity to Lawmakers in Bribery Cases mind map
Recent News
Supreme Court Decision
March 4, 2024
Seven-judge Bench
Integrity of Legislative Process
No place for immunity in bribes
Legal Proceedings
Review and judgment by Supreme Court
Overruled 1998 verdict
Articles 105(2) and 194(2)
Indian Constitution
MPs and MLAs
No immunity for bribery
Two-fold test
Determine extent of privilege
Sita Soren v Union of India
Case Details
Sita Soren
MLA, Jharkhand Mukti Morcha
Bribe for Rajya Sabha vote, 2012
Previous High Court Decision
No immunity if bribe conditions not met
Special Leave Petition
Supreme Court
Reference to Larger Bench
Importance of public issue
Upholds Democracy
Ensures accountability
Prevents Corruption
Limits misuse of immunity
Potential for Misuse
Abuse of legislative privilege
Delayed Justice
Protracted legal proceedings
Way Forward
Reform Legislative Immunity Laws
Narrow scope
Independent Oversight and Accountability
Ethics Committees
External Oversight
Swift and Transparent Legal Processes
Fast-Track Judicial Proceedings
Transparency in Legal Actions
Anti-Corruption Measures
Strengthen laws
Whistleblower Protection
Public Engagement and Education
Civic Education
Open Dialogue
Media and Civil Society Oversight
Investigative Journalism
Civil Society Watchdogs
International Best Practices
Regular Review and Reform
Periodic Review
Public Pressure and Elections
Voter Awareness
Accountability at the Ballot Box

The Supreme Court of India has recently made a landmark ruling that Members of Parliament (MPs) and Members of Legislative Assemblies (MLAs) do not possess immunity from prosecution for bribery related to their speech or vote in the legislature. This decision, which came from a unanimous verdict by a seven-judge constitution bench, overturns a previous 1998 verdict that had granted such immunity. The case in question involved Sita Soren, an MLA accused of accepting a bribe for her vote in the Rajya Sabha elections of 2012. The court’s ruling emphasizes the importance of integrity in the legislative process and the accountability of lawmakers, marking a significant shift in how legal immunity under Articles 105(2) and 194(2) of the Indian Constitution is interpreted in relation to acts of bribery​​​​.

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