[Newsbits] 30.06.2023

newsbits mindmap notes

Just Energy Transition Partnership (JET-P) deal

Just Energy Transition Partnership (JET-P) deal upsc notes
  Senegal signs JET-P
    Fourth country
      Others: South Africa, Indonesia, Vietnam
  Announced June 22, 2023
    Mobilizes 2.5 billion euros
    Financing period: 3-5 years
  About JET-P
    Accelerate phasing out of coal
    Reduce emissions
      Sector: Energy
    Launch: 2021
      Announced at 26th UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP 26)
      Supported by:
        United Kingdom (UK)
        United States (US)
        European Union (EU)
    G7 partnership
      Countries: India, Indonesia, Senegal, Vietnam
    Funding for developing countries
  Existing Deals
    COP 26(2021)
      South Africa finance: $8.5 billion
      Aim: To meet Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) goals
    COP 27 (2022)
      South Africa's JETP Implementation Plan (JETP IP)
    G20 leaders’ summit in Bali
      Indonesia’s JETP deal
    Developed countries' emphasis on coal phase-down
      Ignores country context
      Ignores energy transition differences
        Between industrialized and emerging economies
  India’s Stand
    Refuses coal phase-out negotiation
    Wants its own transition plan
    JETP talks stalled
      Differences in coal approaches
      US push for coal phase-out
      India's push for climate funds
        For renewable energy
        For technology transfer
        For green jobs

Rwanda policy

Rwanda policy upsc notes
    UK Court of Appeal ruling against government’s plan
    Blow to Prime Minister Rishi Sunak’s administration
    Part of strategy to deter migrants from English Channel crossing
    Involves relocating asylum seekers to Rwanda during application process
    Landlocked country in Central Africa's Great Rift Valley
    Where African Great Lakes region and Southeast Africa converge
    Bordered by 
      Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Sea Lions and Algae Bloom

Sea lions and algae bloom upsc notes
    Recent outbreak of algae bloom
    Effect on sea lions and dolphins in California, US
  Sea lions (IUCN Status – Endangered)
    Pinnipeds with external ear flaps, long fore flippers
    Can walk on all fours
    Short, thick hair
    Large chest and belly
    Range extends from subarctic to tropical global ocean
    Except northern Atlantic Ocean
  Algal bloom/red tides
    Excessive growth of algae causing water discolouration
    Human causes: climate change, excess nitrates
    Red tide: presence of dinoflagellate Gonyaulax
    Production of neurotoxin (domoic acid)
    Death of fish and other aquatic organisms
    Toxin passed up food chain (humans can be affected via infected shellfish)

American bald eagle

American bald eagle upsc notes
    Removal from endangered species list (2007)
    Population increase
      Quadrupled since 2009 (according to 2021 report)
    Past challenges
      Habitat destruction
      Pesticide DDT
    Survival measures
      Ban on DDT
      Endangered Species Act
  About the American bald eagle
      Covers most of North America
      Only sea eagle endemic to North America
      Life span 20-30 years
      Builds nests at top of tall trees
      Female eagles bigger than males
    Feeding Pattern
      Prey includes fish, birds, small mammals, snakes, turtles, crabs
      Eat carrion (decaying flesh)
    Protection Status
      IUCN Status: Least Concern

Responsible antibiotic production Certificate

Responsible antibiotic production Certificate upsc notes
    New certification scheme in India
    First of its kind
  About the Scheme
    Developed by: 
      BSI and AMR Industry Alliance
      Address environmental concerns of AMR
        (limit release of antibiotic residues into waterways through industrial waste)
      Third-party validation
      Environmental management and wastewater treatment systems required
      Concentration of antibiotics in waste streams 
        must be below specified threshold
    Certification is valid for three years (annual surveillance for ongoing compliance)


Aspartame upsc notes
    IARC to list aspartame as possibly carcinogenic
  About Aspartame
    Artificial sweetener
    Used in food and beverage products (diet soft drinks, chewing gum, breakfast cereals)
    IARC’s assessment does not consider safe consumption levels (JECFA and national regulators responsible for that)
    Other artificial sweeteners: Sucralose, Saccharin, Stevia, Neotame

Short-lived halogens

Short-lived halogens upsc notes
    New study on oceans' role in cooling the planet
    Short-lived halogens include chlorine, bromine, and iodine
    Contribute 8-10% of cooling (expected to increase to 18-31% by 2100)
  About Short-lived halogens
    Chlorine, bromine, and iodine compounds
    Lifespan less than six months in the atmosphere
    Role in Earth’s climate system (cooling and warming effects)

Schemes to promote the judicious use of fertilisers

Schemes to promote the judicious use of fertilisers upsc notes
    Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs approval
    Unique package of innovative schemes for farmers
    PM Programme for Restoration, Awareness Generation, Nourishment and Amelioration of Mother – Earth (PMPRANAM)
      Incentivise States/ UTs to promote alternate fertilisers
      Balanced use of chemical fertilisers
    Market Development Assistance (MDA) scheme
      Promoting Organic Fertilisers from Gobardhan Plants
    Sulphur coated Urea (Urea Gold)
      Address the sulphur deficiency of soil
      Save input costs for farmers
    Pradhan Mantri Kisan Samruddhi Kendras (PMKSKs)
      One-stop solution for all needs of farmers
      About one lakh PMKSKs in the country
    Judicious use of chemical fertilisers
    Reducing input cost of cultivation for farmers
    Boost farmers’ income
    Strengthen natural/organic farming
    Rejuvenate soil productivity
    Ensure food security

PEN Pinter Prize

PEN Pinter Prize upsc notes
    Michael Rosen
      British children’s writer
      Performance poet
      PEN Pinter Prize 2023 winner
        Over 140 books published
        Themes often social, political, and ethical issues
        Style reflects children’s everyday worlds
        Validates imaginative thinking
  About PEN Pinter Prize
    Named after Harold Pinter
    Established 2009
      Michael Rosen (2023)
      Hanif Kureishi (2010)
      Salman Rushdie (2014)
      Lemn Sissay (2019)
      A writer from the UK, Ireland, and the Commonwealth
      Committed to fearless exposition of truth
      Reflects fierce intellectual determination to define real truth of lives and societies

India’s Bioeconomy Challenges

India's Bioeconomy Challenges upsc notes
    Bioeconomy growth lack of funding and policy support
  Bioeconomy Definition
    Economic activity
      Biotechnology and biomass use
      Production of goods, services, energy
  India's Bioeconomy
    DBT's Bioeconomy Report 2022
      2.6% contribution to GDP
      Prediction of 5% of GDP by 2030
    Funding for DBT
      0.0001% of India's GDP
    Lack of risk-taking policies
    Lack of biotechnology policy alignment
  Case Study
    Genetically Engineered (GE) Insects Guidelines
      Uncertainty of purpose
        GE insect applications
          Human and livestock health
          Crop management
          Standard of living improvement
            Disease burden reduction
            Food security enablement
            Environment conservation
        Absence of approved GE insect purposes
      Uncertainty for researchers
        Guidelines applicable to research only
        Trials approval from Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee
        GE insects can't be recalled post-deployment
      Uncertainty of ambit
        Standard operating procedures for GE mosquitoes, crop pests, beneficial insects
        Lack of clarity on beneficial GE insects
  Way Forward
    Private funding attraction for biotechnology R&D
    Biotechnology policy revision for economic significance
    Importance of biotechnology for pandemic preparedness

Climate Effects on Social Issues

Climate Effects on Social Issues upsc notes
    Climate effects on domestic violence
    Study shows rising temperatures increase domestic violence
    Vulnerabilities and inequalities
    Women experiencing IPV in low-middle income countries
    Ambient temperature and IPV
      1°C increase in temperature
      4.49% increase in IPV prevalence
    Violence prevalence
      Highest physical violence
      Followed by emotional and sexual violence
  Global Warming and IPV
    Temperature increase effects
      Working hours decrease
        Impact on daily wage earners
          Increased home time
            Increased workload for women
      Increased comfort requirements
        Unaffordable for economically weaker sections
      Direct impact on mental health
      Contribution to domestic violence
    IPV increase
      21% by end of 21st century
  Case of India
    Heat-related deaths
    Temperatures up to 45 degrees Celsius
    Highest IPV increase predicted for India
    Climate action essential
      Strict emissions-cut scenarios
        Moderate increase in IPV
    Women's involvement in climate action
      Gender mainstreaming in policymaking
        UNICEF's Gender Action Plan
        Lima work programme on Gender
    Violence against women issue
    Connection to Sustainable Development Goals

Indian Ocean Dipole & Effects on Monsoon

Indian Ocean Dipole upsc notes
    IMD predicts normal monsoon
    El Nino event possibility
  Monsoon and El Nino
      Seasonal wind reversal
      Brings heavy rainfall
      Affects 25 countries
      Covers 18000 km east to west
      Covers 6000 km south to north
    El Nino
      Climate pattern
      Warmer-than-average sea temperatures
      In central and eastern Pacific Ocean
      Has global weather impacts
  Factors Impacting Monsoon Rains
    El Nino/La Nina
      El Nino weakens monsoons
      La Nina enhances monsoons
    Dateline El Nino/Central Pacific El Nino
      Negative impact on monsoon
      2005 El Nino an exception
    Atlantic Nino
      East-west anomaly pattern
      Influences the monsoon
    Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
      Positive IOD enhances monsoon
      Negative IOD weakens monsoon
    Sea Surface Temperatures
      Warmer enhances monsoon
      Cooler weakens monsoon
    Atmospheric Pressure
      Change affects circulation and rainfall
    Land-Sea Temperature Contrast
      Greater contrast influences monsoon strength
    Himalayan Mountain Range
      Influences winds and rainfall patterns
      Shapes local wind patterns
      Affects rainfall distribution
    Tropical Cyclones
      Influence monsoon rainfall
    Global Climate Patterns
      Madden-Julian Oscillation affects monsoon dynamics
    Local Factors
      Vegetation, soil moisture, land use
  Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD)
    Climate phenomenon
    Sea surface temperature fluctuation
    Atmospheric pressure fluctuation
    Similar to El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO)
  Effects of IOD on Monsoon
    Positive IOD
      Enhances monsoon rainfall
      1997: Offset El Nino, above-normal rainfall
    Negative IOD
      Weakens monsoon rainfall
      2019: Contributed to deficient rainfall
    Neutral IOD
      Minimal impact on monsoon
  Monsoon Forecast Conditions (ESSO & IMD)
    North Atlantic and North Pacific SST gradient
    Equatorial south Indian Ocean SST
    East Asia Mean Sea Level pressure
    Northwest Europe surface air temperature
    Equatorial Pacific Ocean warm water volume
  Limitations in Forecasting
    IOD and Atlantic Nino
      Forecasting models lack reliability
      Specific role in monsoon patterns uncertain
    El Nino
      Challenges in predicting location and intensity

Open Market Sale Scheme (OMSS)

Open Market Sale Scheme (OMSS) upsc notes
  Food Corporation of India's (FCI) imposed restrictions
    Refusal to allow states' grain procurement
  About OMSS
    Operationalised for foodgrains sale
      Predetermined prices
      For bulk consumers and private traders
      During lean season
    Nodal Agency: Food Corporation of India (FCI)
    Selling Mode: Weekly auctions by FCI
      Platform: National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX)
    Purpose: Improve domestic grain availability
      Cool down open market prices
      Especially in deficit regions
  Features of OMSS
    Weekly e-auctions by FCI
    Reserve price for wheat and rice sale
      Fixed by Department of Food and Public Distribution (DFPD)
      Kept uniform throughout the country
    Sale throughout the year
      Non-procuring states
      Non-procurement period in procuring states
    Quantity for sale decided by DFPD
      Based on availability and demand
    Surplus procuring states can't participate in e-auction for rice purchase
  Significances of OMSS
    Enhance supply of food grains
      Especially during lean season
      Moderates open market prices
    Prevent wastage and deterioration of food grains
      In FCI godowns
      Due to lack of storage space
      Due to improper maintenance
    Provides alternative source of food grains
      For bulk consumers, state governments, UTs
      For private parties participating in various schemes
    Generates revenue for the FCI
      Reduces its subsidy burden on central government
  Challenges faced by OMSS
    Impact on farmers
      Potential lowering of food grain prices
    Quality control
      Potential spoilage and wastage
    Administrative issues
      Complex and time-consuming e-auctions
    Does not address structural problems
      Of food grain management
      Procurement, distribution, buffer stocking policies
  Way Forward
    Careful implementation to ensure benefits outweigh drawbacks


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