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[Newsbits] 26.07.2023

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RoboMapper

RoboMapper
News
Report in journal ‘Matter’ on RoboMapper's efficient material testing capabilities
What
New robot technology for material testing
Pros
More efficient
Sustainable
Reduces GHG emissions by 10X
Shorter time
10X faster
How
Presented with a set of materials
Asked to develop alloys using it
Robot creates different combinations
Runs various tests on them to determine
If they have Crystalline structure of perovskite
Desirable set of optical characteristics (called band gap)
Stability when exposed to intense light
Used to identify perovskite materials
With better stability and efficiency for use in solar cells

News

  • A report in the journal 'Matter' highlights RoboMapper's efficient material testing capabilities.

What

  • RoboMapper is a new robot technology designed for material testing.

Pros

  • The technology is more efficient, resulting in faster material testing.
  • It is sustainable and contributes to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 10 times compared to conventional methods.

How

  • RoboMapper is presented with a set of materials and tasked with developing alloys using them.
  • The robot creates different combinations of materials and runs various tests to determine:
    • If they have a Crystalline structure of perovskite.
    • Their desirable set of optical characteristics, known as the band gap.
    • Their stability when exposed to intense light.

Applications

  • RoboMapper is particularly useful in identifying perovskite materials that exhibit better stability and efficiency for use in solar cells. This can have significant implications for the development of more efficient and sustainable solar energy technologies.

Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act

Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act
News
Written reply about this Act in Lok Sabha
What
Legislation for civil liability for nuclear damage
Highlights
Provides for civil liability for nuclear damage
Ensures prompt compensation to victims of nuclear incident
Through no-fault liability regime
Liability channelled to operator of nuclear facility
Operators are required to
Maintain insurance or financial securities, or a combination of both
To cover their liability in case of nuclear incident
Renew the insurance policy or financial securities periodically
Liability of the operator for each nuclear incident
Based on type of facility and power output
For nuclear reactors
Thermal power equal to or above ten MW: 1500 crores
For spent fuel reprocessing plants: 300 crores
For research reactors, fuel cycle facilities, transportation of nuclear materials
Thermal power below ten MW: 100 crores
India Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP)
Established to provide insurance to cover the liability
Central Government can review operator's liability
May specify higher amount for compensation if necessary
Adheres to Convention for Supplementary Compensation (CSC)
Offers a two-tier system with regards to the amount of compensation
Places no-fault liability on operators
Gives them a right of recourse against certain persons
Caps operator's liability at 500 crore
For damage exceeding this amount, and up to 300 million SDR, the central government will be liable
All operators (except central government) need to
Take insurance or provide financial security to cover their liability
For government-owned facilities
Entire liability up to 300 million SDR will be borne by the government
Specifies who can claim compensation
Authorities who will assess and award compensation for nuclear damage
Non-compliance with the provisions of the Act
Can result in penalties
When
Enacted in 2010
  • A written reply about the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act was given in Lok Sabha.

What

  • The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act is legislation that deals with civil liability for nuclear damage and ensures prompt compensation to victims of nuclear incidents through a no-fault liability regime.

Highlights

  • The Act provides for civil liability for nuclear damage, and the liability is channeled to the operator of the nuclear facility.
  • Operators of nuclear facilities are required to maintain insurance or financial securities, or a combination of both, to cover their liability in case of a nuclear incident. They must also renew these insurance policies or financial securities periodically.
  • The liability of the operator for each nuclear incident is based on the type of facility and power output. For example:
    • Nuclear reactors with thermal power equal to or above ten MW have a liability of 1500 crores.
    • Spent fuel reprocessing plants have a liability of 300 crores.
    • Research reactors, fuel cycle facilities, and transportation of nuclear materials with thermal power below ten MW have a liability of 100 crores.
  • The India Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP) was established to provide insurance to cover the liability of operators.
  • The Central Government has the authority to review the operator's liability and may specify a higher amount for compensation if necessary.
  • The Act adheres to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation (CSC), which offers a two-tier system for the amount of compensation.
  • The Act places no-fault liability on operators but also gives them a right of recourse against certain persons.
  • The operator's liability is capped at 500 crore. For damage exceeding this amount and up to 300 million SDR, the central government will be liable.
  • All operators (except the central government) need to take insurance or provide financial security to cover their liability.
  • For government-owned facilities, the entire liability up to 300 million SDR will be borne by the government.
  • The Act specifies who can claim compensation and designates the authorities responsible for assessing and awarding compensation for nuclear damage.
  • Non-compliance with the provisions of the Act can result in penalties.

When

  • The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act was enacted in 2010.

Kargil Vijay Diwas 2023

Kargil Vijay Diwas 2023
News
2023 Kargil Vijay Diwas observed
24th anniversary of Kargil War
What
Annual celebration
Dedicated to soldiers of 1999 Kargil War
Kargil Conflict
Last war between two South Asian neighbours
Took place between May and July 1999
Occurred along the Line of Control
Initiated by Pakistani infiltration
In violation of 1972 Shimla Agreement
Commemorates India's victory
In Operation Vijay
Military operation by India
Against Pakistan
Indian troops evicted enemy troops
From Tiger Hill
From several other important locations
When
Observed on July 26th

News

  • The 2023 Kargil Vijay Diwas was observed, marking the 24th anniversary of the Kargil War.

What

  • Kargil Vijay Diwas is an annual celebration dedicated to honoring the soldiers who fought in the 1999 Kargil War, also known as the Kargil Conflict.
  • The Kargil War was the last war between two South Asian neighbors, India and Pakistan. It took place between May and July 1999 and occurred along the Line of Control.
  • The conflict was initiated by Pakistani infiltration, which was in violation of the 1972 Shimla Agreement.

Commemorates India's Victory

  • Kargil Vijay Diwas commemorates India's victory in "Operation Vijay," a military operation carried out by India against Pakistan.
  • During Operation Vijay, Indian troops successfully evicted enemy troops from strategic locations, including Tiger Hill and several other important positions.

When

  • Kargil Vijay Diwas is observed annually on July 26th.

Han Kuang Drills

Han Kuang Drills
News
Taiwan staged military drills
At Taoyuan International Airport
Country’s largest airport
For the first time
Defended against simulated attack
By China
What
Meaning of name
Han Glory
Week-long war drill
Held annually
39th edition in 2023
Why
To test nation's combat readiness
In face of possible Chinese invasion
How
Drills consist of
Live fire drills
Computerized war games
Who
Involves all military branches
Of Taiwan
When
Since 1984

News

  • Taiwan staged military drills for the first time at Taoyuan International Airport, the country's largest airport, defending against a simulated attack by China.

What

  • The name "Han Kuang" translates to "Han Glory."
  • The drills are a week-long war exercise held annually, with the 39th edition taking place in 2023.

Why

  • The drills are conducted to test Taiwan's combat readiness in the face of a possible Chinese invasion.

How

  • The Han Kuang drills consist of live fire exercises and computerized war games.

Who

  • The drills involve all branches of Taiwan's military.

When

  • The Han Kuang drills have been held annually since 1984.

Japanese Population Decline

Japanese Population Decline
News
Japan records
Steepest population decline
Highlights
Japanese population decline
For 14th year in a row
Population shrinking
Since peak in 2008
Due to declining birthrate
Last year's births
7,71,801 births recorded
A record low
Number of Japanese nationals
Declined by 0.65%
By 8,00,000 people
To 122.4 million in 2022
Compared to previous year
Population decline recorded
In all 47 prefectures
For the first time
Number of foreign residents
Reached new high
3 million people
Account for 2.4% of total population
Significance
Reflects increasing role
Played by non-Japanese people
In shrinking and aging Japan
Who
Data from
Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry
Facts
Japanese cabinet approval
Plan to expand job categories
Allowed for foreign workers
Opening door for future permanent residency
Major shift in country
Known for closed-door immigration policy
Struggling with shrinking population

News

  • Japan records the steepest population decline, marking the 14th consecutive year of decline.

Highlights

  • The Japanese population has been declining since its peak in 2008, largely attributed to a declining birthrate.
  • Last year, there were only 771,801 births recorded, which is a record low.
  • The number of Japanese nationals declined by 0.65%, equivalent to 800,000 people, bringing the total population to 122.4 million in 2022 compared to the previous year.
  • Population decline was observed in all 47 prefectures for the first time.
  • On the other hand, the number of foreign residents reached a new high of 3 million people, accounting for 2.4% of the total population.

Significance

  • The declining Japanese population and the increasing number of foreign residents reflect the changing dynamics and the role played by non-Japanese individuals in an aging and shrinking Japan.

Who

  • The data on the Japanese population decline comes from the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry.

Facts

  • In response to the shrinking population, the Japanese cabinet approved a plan to expand job categories allowed for foreign workers, potentially opening the door for future permanent residency.
  • This represents a major shift in the country, which has been historically known for its closed-door immigration policy and is now grappling with the challenges posed by a declining population.

Hattee Community

Hattee Community
News
Rajya Sabha passed
Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Third Amendment) Bill 2022
Accord Scheduled Tribe status
To the community
Who
Community named after
Traditional occupation
Selling home-grown crops
Selling vegetables
Selling meat
Selling wool
At small-town markets
Known as 'haats'
Community strength
Approximately 3 lakh members
Where
Located in Sirmour district
Himachal Pradesh
When
Demand for ST status
Since 1967

News

  • Rajya Sabha passed the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Third Amendment) Bill 2022, according Scheduled Tribe status to the Hattee Community.

Who

  • The Hattee Community is named after its traditional occupation, which involves selling home-grown crops, vegetables, meat, and wool at small-town markets known as 'haats.'
  • The community consists of approximately 3 lakh members.

Where

  • They are settled in the Sirmour district of Himachal Pradesh.

When

  • The demand for Scheduled Tribe status for the Hattee Community has been persistent since 1967.

Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD) Amendment Bill, 2023

Registration of Births and Deaths Amendment Bill 2023
News
Bill tabled
In Lok Sabha
What
Proposed legislation
Enable generation
Of digital birth certificates
Highlights
Makes obligatory
For States
Register births and deaths
On Centre’s Civil Registration System (CRS) portal
States required to
Share data
With Registrar General of India
Functioning under Union Home Ministry
Centralised register
Results in efficient delivery
Of public services and social benefits
Helps in updating
Other databases
Database usage
Update National Population Register (NPR)
Update ration cards
Update property registration records
NPR data collection
First collected in 2010
Updated in 2015
Through door-to-door enumeration
NPR database
Contains 119 crore residents
NPR as first step
In creation of National Register of Citizens (NRC)
As per Citizenship Rules, 2003
Bill proposes collection
Of Aadhaar numbers
Of parents and informant
If available
In case of birth registration
Present situation
Either parent can voluntarily provide
Their Aadhaar number
For newborn’s birth certificate
Generated through the CRS
Aadhaar saturation
As on March 31
93% saturation
For projected national population of 138.72 crore
Bill proposes facilitation
Of registration process
For various cases
Adopted child
Orphan child
Abandoned child
Surrendered child
Surrogate child
Child to a single parent
Child to unwed mother
Bill proposes obligation
For all medical institutions
To provide certificate
Of cause of death
To the Registrar
To the nearest relative
Why
Avoid multiplicity
Of documents
To prove date and place of birth
In the country
How
Bill amends 14 sections
Of Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969
Inserts new provision
Substitutes another
Who
New rules applicable
To all those born
After Bill is passed
And becomes Act of law

The Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD) Amendment Bill, 2023 has been tabled in Lok Sabha as a proposed legislation.

What

  • The proposed legislation aims to enable the generation of digital birth certificates through the CRS system.

Highlights

Centralized Registration System

  • The bill mandates all states to register births and deaths on the Centre's Civil Registration System (CRS) portal.
  • States are required to share data with the Registrar General of India, which functions under the Union Home Ministry.
  • This centralized register is expected to lead to efficient delivery of public services and social benefits.
  • The CRS database will also be used to update other important databases, including the National Population Register (NPR), ration cards, and property registration records.

National Population Register (NPR)

  • The NPR data was first collected in 2010 and updated in 2015 through door-to-door enumeration.
  • The NPR database currently contains information on 119 crore residents.
  • The NPR is considered the first step in the creation of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) as per Citizenship Rules, 2003.

Collection of Aadhaar Numbers

  • The bill proposes the collection of Aadhaar numbers of parents and informants, if available, during birth registration.
  • Currently, either parent can voluntarily provide their Aadhaar number for the newborn's birth certificate generated through the CRS.
  • As of March 31, Aadhaar saturation stands at 93% for the projected national population of 138.72 crore.

Facilitation of Registration Process

  • The bill proposes to facilitate the registration process for various cases, including adopted, orphaned, abandoned, surrendered, surrogate, and children of single parents or unwed mothers.

Obligation for Medical Institutions

  • The bill places an obligation on all medical institutions to provide certificates of the cause of death to the Registrar and the nearest relative.

Why

  • The primary objective of the bill is to avoid the multiplicity of documents needed to prove the date and place of birth in the country.

How

  • The bill amends 14 sections of the Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969.
  • It introduces new provisions and substitutes existing ones to streamline the registration process.

Who

  • The new rules introduced by the bill will be applicable to all individuals born after the Bill is passed and becomes an Act of law.

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