[Newsbits] 26.07.2023

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    Report in journal ‘Matter’ on RoboMapper's efficient material testing capabilities
    New robot technology for material testing
    More efficient
      Reduces GHG emissions by 10X
    Shorter time
      10X faster
    Presented with a set of materials
      Asked to develop alloys using it
    Robot creates different combinations
      Runs various tests on them to determine
        If they have Crystalline structure of perovskite
        Desirable set of optical characteristics (called band gap)
        Stability when exposed to intense light
    Used to identify perovskite materials
      With better stability and efficiency for use in solar cells


  • A report in the journal 'Matter' highlights RoboMapper's efficient material testing capabilities.


  • RoboMapper is a new robot technology designed for material testing.

Prelims Sureshots – Most Probable Topics for UPSC Prelims

A Compilation of the Most Probable Topics for UPSC Prelims, including Schemes, Freedom Fighters, Judgments, Acts, National Parks, Government Agencies, Space Missions, and more. Get a guaranteed 120+ marks!


  • The technology is more efficient, resulting in faster material testing.
  • It is sustainable and contributes to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 10 times compared to conventional methods.


  • RoboMapper is presented with a set of materials and tasked with developing alloys using them.
  • The robot creates different combinations of materials and runs various tests to determine:
    • If they have a Crystalline structure of perovskite.
    • Their desirable set of optical characteristics, known as the band gap.
    • Their stability when exposed to intense light.


  • RoboMapper is particularly useful in identifying perovskite materials that exhibit better stability and efficiency for use in solar cells. This can have significant implications for the development of more efficient and sustainable solar energy technologies.

Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act

Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act
    Written reply about this Act in Lok Sabha
    Legislation for civil liability for nuclear damage
    Provides for civil liability for nuclear damage
      Ensures prompt compensation to victims of nuclear incident
        Through no-fault liability regime
    Liability channelled to operator of nuclear facility
    Operators are required to
      Maintain insurance or financial securities, or a combination of both
        To cover their liability in case of nuclear incident
      Renew the insurance policy or financial securities periodically
    Liability of the operator for each nuclear incident
      Based on type of facility and power output
        For nuclear reactors
          Thermal power equal to or above ten MW: 1500 crores
        For spent fuel reprocessing plants: 300 crores
        For research reactors, fuel cycle facilities, transportation of nuclear materials
          Thermal power below ten MW: 100 crores
    India Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP)
      Established to provide insurance to cover the liability
    Central Government can review operator's liability
      May specify higher amount for compensation if necessary
    Adheres to Convention for Supplementary Compensation (CSC)
      Offers a two-tier system with regards to the amount of compensation
    Places no-fault liability on operators
      Gives them a right of recourse against certain persons
    Caps operator's liability at 500 crore
      For damage exceeding this amount, and up to 300 million SDR, the central government will be liable
    All operators (except central government) need to
      Take insurance or provide financial security to cover their liability
    For government-owned facilities
      Entire liability up to 300 million SDR will be borne by the government
    Specifies who can claim compensation
      Authorities who will assess and award compensation for nuclear damage
    Non-compliance with the provisions of the Act
      Can result in penalties
    Enacted in 2010
  • A written reply about the Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act was given in Lok Sabha.


  • The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act is legislation that deals with civil liability for nuclear damage and ensures prompt compensation to victims of nuclear incidents through a no-fault liability regime.


  • The Act provides for civil liability for nuclear damage, and the liability is channeled to the operator of the nuclear facility.
  • Operators of nuclear facilities are required to maintain insurance or financial securities, or a combination of both, to cover their liability in case of a nuclear incident. They must also renew these insurance policies or financial securities periodically.
  • The liability of the operator for each nuclear incident is based on the type of facility and power output. For example:
    • Nuclear reactors with thermal power equal to or above ten MW have a liability of 1500 crores.
    • Spent fuel reprocessing plants have a liability of 300 crores.
    • Research reactors, fuel cycle facilities, and transportation of nuclear materials with thermal power below ten MW have a liability of 100 crores.
  • The India Nuclear Insurance Pool (INIP) was established to provide insurance to cover the liability of operators.
  • The Central Government has the authority to review the operator's liability and may specify a higher amount for compensation if necessary.
  • The Act adheres to the Convention on Supplementary Compensation (CSC), which offers a two-tier system for the amount of compensation.
  • The Act places no-fault liability on operators but also gives them a right of recourse against certain persons.
  • The operator's liability is capped at 500 crore. For damage exceeding this amount and up to 300 million SDR, the central government will be liable.
  • All operators (except the central government) need to take insurance or provide financial security to cover their liability.
  • For government-owned facilities, the entire liability up to 300 million SDR will be borne by the government.
  • The Act specifies who can claim compensation and designates the authorities responsible for assessing and awarding compensation for nuclear damage.
  • Non-compliance with the provisions of the Act can result in penalties.


  • The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act was enacted in 2010.

Kargil Vijay Diwas 2023

Kargil Vijay Diwas 2023
    2023 Kargil Vijay Diwas observed
      24th anniversary of Kargil War
    Annual celebration
      Dedicated to soldiers of 1999 Kargil War
        Kargil Conflict
          Last war between two South Asian neighbours
          Took place between May and July 1999
          Occurred along the Line of Control
          Initiated by Pakistani infiltration
            In violation of 1972 Shimla Agreement
    Commemorates India's victory
      In Operation Vijay
        Military operation by India
          Against Pakistan
        Indian troops evicted enemy troops
          From Tiger Hill
          From several other important locations
    Observed on July 26th


  • The 2023 Kargil Vijay Diwas was observed, marking the 24th anniversary of the Kargil War.


  • Kargil Vijay Diwas is an annual celebration dedicated to honoring the soldiers who fought in the 1999 Kargil War, also known as the Kargil Conflict.
  • The Kargil War was the last war between two South Asian neighbors, India and Pakistan. It took place between May and July 1999 and occurred along the Line of Control.
  • The conflict was initiated by Pakistani infiltration, which was in violation of the 1972 Shimla Agreement.

Commemorates India's Victory

  • Kargil Vijay Diwas commemorates India's victory in "Operation Vijay," a military operation carried out by India against Pakistan.
  • During Operation Vijay, Indian troops successfully evicted enemy troops from strategic locations, including Tiger Hill and several other important positions.


  • Kargil Vijay Diwas is observed annually on July 26th.

Han Kuang Drills

Han Kuang Drills
    Taiwan staged military drills
      At Taoyuan International Airport
        Country’s largest airport
        For the first time
      Defended against simulated attack
        By China
    Meaning of name
      Han Glory
    Week-long war drill
      Held annually
    39th edition in 2023
    To test nation's combat readiness
      In face of possible Chinese invasion
    Drills consist of
      Live fire drills
      Computerized war games
    Involves all military branches
      Of Taiwan
    Since 1984


  • Taiwan staged military drills for the first time at Taoyuan International Airport, the country's largest airport, defending against a simulated attack by China.


  • The name "Han Kuang" translates to "Han Glory."
  • The drills are a week-long war exercise held annually, with the 39th edition taking place in 2023.


  • The drills are conducted to test Taiwan's combat readiness in the face of a possible Chinese invasion.


  • The Han Kuang drills consist of live fire exercises and computerized war games.


  • The drills involve all branches of Taiwan's military.


  • The Han Kuang drills have been held annually since 1984.

Japanese Population Decline

Japanese Population Decline
    Japan records
      Steepest population decline
    Japanese population decline
      For 14th year in a row
      Population shrinking
        Since peak in 2008
      Due to declining birthrate
      Last year's births
        7,71,801 births recorded
          A record low
    Number of Japanese nationals
      Declined by 0.65%
        By 8,00,000 people
      To 122.4 million in 2022
        Compared to previous year
    Population decline recorded
      In all 47 prefectures
        For the first time
    Number of foreign residents
      Reached new high
        3 million people
          Account for 2.4% of total population
    Reflects increasing role
      Played by non-Japanese people
        In shrinking and aging Japan
    Data from
      Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry
    Japanese cabinet approval
      Plan to expand job categories
        Allowed for foreign workers
        Opening door for future permanent residency
          Major shift in country
            Known for closed-door immigration policy
            Struggling with shrinking population


  • Japan records the steepest population decline, marking the 14th consecutive year of decline.


  • The Japanese population has been declining since its peak in 2008, largely attributed to a declining birthrate.
  • Last year, there were only 771,801 births recorded, which is a record low.
  • The number of Japanese nationals declined by 0.65%, equivalent to 800,000 people, bringing the total population to 122.4 million in 2022 compared to the previous year.
  • Population decline was observed in all 47 prefectures for the first time.
  • On the other hand, the number of foreign residents reached a new high of 3 million people, accounting for 2.4% of the total population.


  • The declining Japanese population and the increasing number of foreign residents reflect the changing dynamics and the role played by non-Japanese individuals in an aging and shrinking Japan.


  • The data on the Japanese population decline comes from the Internal Affairs and Communications Ministry.


  • In response to the shrinking population, the Japanese cabinet approved a plan to expand job categories allowed for foreign workers, potentially opening the door for future permanent residency.
  • This represents a major shift in the country, which has been historically known for its closed-door immigration policy and is now grappling with the challenges posed by a declining population.

Hattee Community

Hattee Community
    Rajya Sabha passed
      Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Third Amendment) Bill 2022
        Accord Scheduled Tribe status
          To the community
    Community named after
      Traditional occupation
        Selling home-grown crops
        Selling vegetables
        Selling meat
        Selling wool
          At small-town markets
            Known as 'haats'
    Community strength
      Approximately 3 lakh members
    Located in Sirmour district
      Himachal Pradesh
    Demand for ST status
      Since 1967


  • Rajya Sabha passed the Constitution (Scheduled Tribes) Order (Third Amendment) Bill 2022, according Scheduled Tribe status to the Hattee Community.


  • The Hattee Community is named after its traditional occupation, which involves selling home-grown crops, vegetables, meat, and wool at small-town markets known as 'haats.'
  • The community consists of approximately 3 lakh members.


  • They are settled in the Sirmour district of Himachal Pradesh.


  • The demand for Scheduled Tribe status for the Hattee Community has been persistent since 1967.

Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD) Amendment Bill, 2023

Registration of Births and Deaths Amendment Bill 2023
    Bill tabled
      In Lok Sabha
    Proposed legislation
      Enable generation
        Of digital birth certificates
    Makes obligatory
      For States
        Register births and deaths
          On Centre’s Civil Registration System (CRS) portal
    States required to
      Share data
        With Registrar General of India
          Functioning under Union Home Ministry
    Centralised register
      Results in efficient delivery
        Of public services and social benefits
      Helps in updating
        Other databases
    Database usage
      Update National Population Register (NPR)
      Update ration cards
      Update property registration records
      NPR data collection
        First collected in 2010
        Updated in 2015
          Through door-to-door enumeration
      NPR database
        Contains 119 crore residents
      NPR as first step
        In creation of National Register of Citizens (NRC)
          As per Citizenship Rules, 2003
    Bill proposes collection
      Of Aadhaar numbers
        Of parents and informant
          If available
          In case of birth registration
      Present situation
        Either parent can voluntarily provide
          Their Aadhaar number
            For newborn’s birth certificate
              Generated through the CRS
      Aadhaar saturation
        As on March 31
          93% saturation
            For projected national population of 138.72 crore
    Bill proposes facilitation
      Of registration process
        For various cases
          Adopted child
          Orphan child
          Abandoned child
          Surrendered child
          Surrogate child
          Child to a single parent
          Child to unwed mother
    Bill proposes obligation
      For all medical institutions
        To provide certificate
          Of cause of death
            To the Registrar
            To the nearest relative
    Avoid multiplicity
      Of documents
        To prove date and place of birth
          In the country
    Bill amends 14 sections
      Of Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969
    Inserts new provision
    Substitutes another
    New rules applicable
      To all those born
        After Bill is passed
          And becomes Act of law

The Registration of Births and Deaths (RBD) Amendment Bill, 2023 has been tabled in Lok Sabha as a proposed legislation.


  • The proposed legislation aims to enable the generation of digital birth certificates through the CRS system.


Centralized Registration System

  • The bill mandates all states to register births and deaths on the Centre's Civil Registration System (CRS) portal.
  • States are required to share data with the Registrar General of India, which functions under the Union Home Ministry.
  • This centralized register is expected to lead to efficient delivery of public services and social benefits.
  • The CRS database will also be used to update other important databases, including the National Population Register (NPR), ration cards, and property registration records.

National Population Register (NPR)

  • The NPR data was first collected in 2010 and updated in 2015 through door-to-door enumeration.
  • The NPR database currently contains information on 119 crore residents.
  • The NPR is considered the first step in the creation of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) as per Citizenship Rules, 2003.

Collection of Aadhaar Numbers

  • The bill proposes the collection of Aadhaar numbers of parents and informants, if available, during birth registration.
  • Currently, either parent can voluntarily provide their Aadhaar number for the newborn's birth certificate generated through the CRS.
  • As of March 31, Aadhaar saturation stands at 93% for the projected national population of 138.72 crore.

Facilitation of Registration Process

  • The bill proposes to facilitate the registration process for various cases, including adopted, orphaned, abandoned, surrendered, surrogate, and children of single parents or unwed mothers.

Obligation for Medical Institutions

  • The bill places an obligation on all medical institutions to provide certificates of the cause of death to the Registrar and the nearest relative.


  • The primary objective of the bill is to avoid the multiplicity of documents needed to prove the date and place of birth in the country.


  • The bill amends 14 sections of the Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969.
  • It introduces new provisions and substitutes existing ones to streamline the registration process.


  • The new rules introduced by the bill will be applicable to all individuals born after the Bill is passed and becomes an Act of law.


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