[Newsbits] 16-17.02.2024: Kotravai Sculpture, E-Jagriti Portal & More

newsbits mindmap notes
/ Diseases
Diphtheria Outbreak mind map
Recent News
Nigeria Outbreak
Since December 2022
798 Confirmed Cases
Highest in Kano State
Children 2-14 Years Majorly Affected
Case Fatality Rate 10%
Low Vaccination Rates
Guinea Outbreak
Since July 2023
538 Cases Reported
18 Confirmed Cases
58 Deaths
Majorly Affects Children 1-4 Years
Case Fatality Rate 11%
Nigeria: Since December 2022
Guinea: Since July 2023
Low Vaccination Coverage
Poor Access to Treatment
Global Antitoxin Shortage
Caused by Corynebacterium Species
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
Corynebacterium ulcerans
Sore Throat, Fever
Thick Grey/White Patch in Throat
Difficulty Breathing, Swallowing
Barking Cough
Diphtheria Antitoxin (DAT)
Erythromycin Recommended
Resistance to Penicillin
Multiple States Affected
Kano State Most Affected
Kankan Region
Siguiri Prefecture Most Affected
Affected Demographics
Children Most at Risk
Unimmunized Individuals
Responding Organizations
NCDC (Nigeria Centre for Disease Control)
WHO (World Health Organization)
MSF (Médecins Sans Frontières)
Spread by Respiratory Droplets
Direct Contact Transmission
Increased Access to DAT
UNICEF's Immunization Efforts
MSF's Emergency Response
High Mortality Rate in Children
Treatment Resistance
Lack of Adequate Healthcare Infrastructure
Way Forward
Scale Up Immunization Coverage
Improve Treatment Access
Strengthen Healthcare Systems

Diphtheria is a highly contagious bacterial disease, primarily caused by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and marked by symptoms like sore throat, fever, and a thick grey or white patch in the throat. Recent outbreaks in Nigeria and Guinea have highlighted the challenges posed by this disease, particularly in regions with low vaccination rates and inadequate healthcare infrastructure. Efforts by organizations like the WHO, UNICEF, and MSF are crucial in controlling these outbreaks and reducing the disease’s impact, especially among children who are most at risk.

/ Uncategorized
Lying Flat Lifestyle (Tang Ping) mind map
Recent News
Suppression by Government
WeChat search disabled
Discussion groups shut down
T-shirts removed from stores
Emerged in April 2021
Resistance to 996 Work Culture
Long hours, little reward
Stressful, competitive environment
Minimalist, low-desire living
Social media post by Kind-Hearted Traveller
Philosophical Basis
Inspired by Greek cynicism
Throughout China
Cities and rural areas
Popular among youth
Kind-Hearted Traveller
Original poster of Tang Ping
Chinese Youth
Frustrated with societal pressures
Seeking alternatives to rat race
Social Media Influence
Viral spread of concept
Government Response
Censorship and media control
Criticism in state media
Personal Well-being
Reduced stress and pressure
Cultural Shift
Rethinking work-life balance
Economic Impact
Potential slowdown in productivity
Governmental Concerns
Threat to social order
Fear of youth revolution
Way Forward
Government Policy
Balancing work-life norms
Societal Acceptance
Recognition of diverse life choices

The “Lying Flat” lifestyle, or “Tang Ping,” in China is a social phenomenon that emerged as a response to the grueling “996” work culture (9 am to 9 pm, 6 days a week). It advocates for a minimalist and low-desire way of life, rejecting the relentless pursuit of material success and societal pressures. Originating from a viral post by a user named Kind-Hearted Traveller, it has since resonated with many young Chinese people. This movement, while providing personal relief and proposing a reevaluation of work-life balance, has been met with government suppression due to fears of its impact on productivity and social order. Tang Ping reflects a deeper cultural and philosophical shift among Chinese youth, grappling with the challenges of modern life in a rapidly changing society.

/ Species
Species Threat Abatement and Restoration (STAR) Metric mind map
Developed by
International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Over 50 global organizations
Assess and guide conservation efforts
Reduce species extinction risks
Based on
IUCN Red List of Threatened Species data
Impact of conservation activities
Habitat restoration
Estimated STAR score
Uses published global species distribution
Threat information
Calibrated STAR score
Confirms presence of threats, species
Establishes baseline for management
Realized STAR score
Accounts for measurable threat reduction
Reflects management activity impact
Civil Society
Finance industry
Planning nature-positive actions
Biodiversity risk assessment
Setting, tracking targets
Policy alignment
Quantifies biodiversity benefits
Allows comparison at various scales
Aligns with international biodiversity targets
Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Strategy
Sustainable Development Goals
Future plans
Include freshwater, marine species
Continuous development
Calibrated, Realized STAR methodologies
Scientific Underpinning
In Nature Ecology & Evolution
Extending application to aquatic environments
Accounting for threats in international trade
Utilizing National Red List data
Global Reach
Eastern and Southern Africa
Eastern Europe, Central Asia
Mexico, Central America, Caribbean
North America
South America
West and Central Africa
West Asia
Challenges and Considerations
Recognizing importance of biodiversity
Addressing underestimated biodiversity significance
Considering site-specific interventions

The Species Threat Abatement and Restoration (STAR) metric, developed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) with contributions from over 50 global organizations, is a pioneering tool designed to assess and guide efforts in conserving biodiversity and reducing species extinction risks. Utilizing data from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the STAR metric measures the impact of conservation activities and habitat restoration in specific areas. It operates in three phases: estimating, calibrating, and realizing STAR scores, which correspond to initial assessments, confirmation of threats and species, and the impact of management activities, respectively. This metric is crucial for governments, businesses, and other stakeholders in planning nature-positive actions, assessing biodiversity risks, and aligning with international biodiversity targets. With continuous development and future plans to include aquatic environments, the STAR metric represents a significant step forward in quantifying and comparing the benefits of different conservation actions on a global scale.

National Green Hydrogen Mission mind map
Approved on January 4, 2022
Targeting energy independence by 2047
Net zero by 2070
Decarbonisation of the economy
Reduce dependence on fossil fuels
Aatmanirbhar through clean energy
Green Hydrogen as alternative energy
Utilization areas
Long-duration storage
Replacement of fossil fuels
Clean transportation
Decentralized power generation
Aviation and marine transport
Strategic Interventions for Green Hydrogen Transition (SIGHT)
Financial incentive mechanisms
For manufacturing of electrolysers
For production of green hydrogen
Quality and performance standards
Equipment approval required
Certification framework
For Green Hydrogen and derivatives
Supportive policies
Strategic partnerships
Domestic Demand
Minimum share consumption specified
By designated consumers
Year-wise trajectory set by Empowered Group
Pilot Projects
In low carbon steel
Production and usage
Identified regions as Green Hydrogen Hubs
Ministry of New & Renewable Energy
Overall coordination
Implementation of the Mission
Public-private partnership
For R&D
Strategic Hydrogen Innovation Partnership (SHIP)
Key players
Reliance Green Hydrogen and Green Chemicals Limited
Avaada GreenH2
Greenko ZeroC
ACME Cleantech Solutions
Other major bidders
Welspun New Energy
JSW Neo Energy
CESC Projects Limited
Sembcorp Green Hydrogen India
Aneeka Universal
GH4 India
UPL Limited
Torrent Power
Investment and capacity targets
5 MMT per annum by 2030
125 GW associated renewable energy capacity
Total investments over Rs. Eight lakh crore
Creation of over Six lakh jobs
Reduction in fossil fuel imports over Rs. One lakh crore
Abatement of nearly 50 MMT of annual greenhouse gas emissions
Policy measures
Flexibility in renewable electricity sourcing
Open access for renewable energy used in production
Single portal for clearances within 30 days
Land allotment in renewable energy parks
Manufacturing zones creation
Renewable Purchase Obligation (RPO) compliance relaxations
Regulated distribution licensee margins
Cost reduction in green hydrogen production
Decreased emissions
Energy security
Export opportunities
Job creation
Cost of production
Aiming for reduction to $1.5 per kg by 2030
Infrastructure scaling
Necessary for supporting capacity
Market creation
Stable long-term market required
Demand sustainability
Technological advancement
Needed for cost-effective production
Way Forward
Expansion of green hydrogen production
Technology improvement
Reductions/waivers in government taxations
Duties on electrolysers import
Goods and Service taxes
Transmission and distribution costs
State roles in domestic distribution
Policy/incentive in several states
Infrastructure, policy support and demand necessary

India’s Green Hydrogen Mission, approved on January 4, 2022, is a pivotal initiative towards achieving energy independence by 2047 and net zero by 2070. Its overarching objective is to make India a global hub for the production, usage, and export of Green Hydrogen and its derivatives. This mission includes strategic interventions like financial incentives for manufacturing electrolysers and producing green hydrogen, a certification framework for green hydrogen, and the development of Green Hydrogen Hubs. Key players in this mission include major energy and industrial companies like Reliance Green Hydrogen and Green Chemicals Limited, Avaada GreenH2, and Greenko ZeroC.

The mission aims to develop a green hydrogen production capacity of at least 5 Million Metric Tonnes (MMT) per annum by 2030, with an associated renewable energy capacity of about 125 gigawatts. This ambitious target is expected to attract significant investments, create jobs, reduce fossil fuel imports, and decrease greenhouse gas emissions. The mission also outlines policies for more flexible sourcing of renewable electricity, land allotment for green hydrogen projects, and manufacturing zones creation, aiming to reduce the production cost and scale up infrastructure.

However, the mission faces challenges in cost reduction, infrastructure scaling, market creation, and technological advancement. The way forward includes expanding green hydrogen production, improving technology, and implementing reductions or waivers in government taxation policies. Several Indian states are also playing a role in domestic distribution with their policies and incentives for green hydrogen.

In summary, India’s Green Hydrogen Mission represents a significant step towards a sustainable and self-reliant energy future, focusing on green hydrogen as a key element in the country’s energy transition strategy.

/ Space
Intuitive Machines Mission mind map
Recent News
Launch Window
Mid-February 2024
Targeted Landing Date
February 22
Launch Window
No earlier than mid-February 2024
Targeted Landing Date
February 22
Part of NASA's CLPS Initiative
Establish Sustainable Human Presence
On the Moon
Nova-C Lunar Lander
Major System Tests
Certification Milestones
NASA Science Instruments
Focus Areas
Plume-Surface Interactions
Space Weather/Lunar Surface Interactions
Radio Astronomy
Precision Landing Technologies
Communication and Navigation Node
Future Missions
Moon's South Pole
Intuitive Machines
Leading Space Exploration Company
Falcon 9 Rocket
Artemis Lunar Exploration
Launch Vehicle
SpaceX Falcon 9 Rocket
Landing Requirements
Specific Lighting Conditions
First American Spacecraft
To the Moon Since Apollo
First to Reach
Lunar South Pole
Advancing Lunar Exploration
Enhancing Lunar Science and Technology
Weather Conditions
Affecting Launch Schedule
Specific Lighting Requirements
For Landing
Way Forward
Future Missions
IM-2 and IM-3
Continued Payload Delivery
Lunar Surface Research

Intuitive Machines (IM) is set to embark on a pioneering lunar mission, known as IM-1, under NASA’s Commercial Lunar Payload Services (CLPS) initiative. Slated for launch no earlier than mid-February 2024, the mission targets a landing on the Moon’s south pole on February 22. Utilizing SpaceX’s Falcon 9 rocket, the Nova-C lunar lander will carry vital NASA science instruments to study various lunar aspects, including plume-surface interactions and space weather. This mission marks a significant milestone as it aims to establish a sustainable human presence on the Moon and revive American lunar exploration, laying groundwork for future missions IM-2 and IM-3.

World Governments Summit 2024 mind map
Recent News
11th Edition
In Dubai
From 12 to 14 February
Over 300 Ministers Attending
Shaping Future Governments
Key Focus
Future Opportunities
Global Challenges
Governmental Cooperation
12-14 February 2024
Addressing Pressing Global Issues
Over 25 Heads of State
120 Governmental Delegations
85 International and Regional Organizations
Over 110 Dialogues and Sessions
Special Events
Arab Fiscal Forum
World Bank Group Ministerial Experience Exchange
Ministerial Roundtable with Arab Youth Ministers
Dubai, UAE
Mohammed Abdullah Al Gergawi
Minister of Cabinet Affairs
Chairman of World Governments Summit Organisation
Key Speakers
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
President of Türkiye
Narendra Modi
Prime Minister of India
Paul Kagame
President of Rwanda
William Ruto
President of Kenya
Sadyr Japarov
President of Kyrgyz Republic
Participating Organisations
World Bank
Arab Monetary Fund
Collaboration and Dialogue
Global Forums
Interactive Dialogues
Ministerial Meetings
Fostering Global Cooperation
Knowledge Sharing
Inspirational Governmental Models
Addressing Complex Global Issues
Climate Action
Sustainable Finance
AI Challenges
Way Forward
Sustainable Investments
Future of Education
Global Health Initiatives
Responsible AI

The World Governments Summit 2024, scheduled for February 12-14 in Dubai, is an influential global event focusing on the theme “Shaping Future Governments.” It aims to address critical global issues and promote cooperation among governments. Key figures like Mohammed Abdullah Al Gergawi, President Erdoğan of Türkiye, Prime Minister Narendra Modi of India, and other notable leaders will participate. The summit will host over 25 heads of state, 300 ministers, and delegates from 120 governments and 85 international and regional organizations. The agenda includes over 110 dialogues and sessions on various themes like AI, sustainable finance, and global health. This summit is significant for fostering global cooperation, sharing knowledge, and showcasing inspiring governmental models while tackling complex global issues like climate action and AI challenges. The way forward includes focusing on sustainable investments, the future of education, global health initiatives, and responsible AI​​​​​​.

Kotravai Sculpture mind map
Recent News
1200-year-old discovery
In Tamil Nadu's Villupuram
Near Melmalayanur
Found by Raj Paneerselvam, R Udayaraja
Marabusar Organization
Unearthed near Ulundurpet
From Pallava period
Eight hands
Discovered by Raj Paneer Selvam, Sridar C, Tharamai Kannan R
In Pilrampattu village, Kallakurichi
Unearthed at Checkanurani
Early Pandyan period
Four feet tall, two feet wide
Four hands
Found near Karupasamy temple
Discoveries made in 2022 and 2024
Importance in Tamil culture
Goddess of war and victory
Description of sculptures
Five-feet-tall, four-feet-wide
Ancient soldier helmet crown
Elliptical face, thick lips
Chakra, sangu, bell
Stands on buffalo head
Eight hands sculpture
Crown, batrakundalams, sarapali
Chakkara, sword, bell, abhaya mudra
Conch, bow, shield, Uru Mudhra
Trishul, lion, blackbuck
Tamil Nadu, India
Ulundurpet, Kallakurichi
Deity in sculptures
Raj Paneerselvam, R Udayaraja
Sridar C, Tharamai Kannan R
Archaeological research
Field visits
Inspection based on local information
Cultural significance
Insight into Pallava, Pandyan eras
Representation of religious practices
Historical importance
Understanding ancient Tamil Nadu

The Kotravai sculptures, dating back to the Pallava and early Pandyan periods, were discovered in various locations across Tamil Nadu, India. These significant archaeological finds, about 1200 years old, represent the goddess of war and victory in Tamil culture. The sculptures vary in size and features but commonly exhibit intricate craftsmanship and symbolic details like the ancient soldier helmet crown, elliptical face, thick lips, and various traditional ornaments. These discoveries by Raj Paneerselvam, R Udayaraja, and others offer profound insights into the religious practices and cultural heritage of ancient Tamil Nadu.

/ Species
Cuscuta Dodder mind map
Recent News
Cuscuta dodder in 
Chengalpet forests 
Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary
Throughout the year
Parasitic nature
Over 201 species
Yellow, orange, or red plants
Genus Cuscuta
Part of Convolvulaceae
Found in temperate, tropical regions
Rare in cool temperate climates
Throughout India
In Punjab
Angiosperm Phylogeny Group
Identified species
Cuscuta reflexa
Cuscuta europaea
Attaches to host
Wraps around it
Haustoria insert into vascular system
Uses host's nutrients
Host location
Uses volatile organic compound cues
Host defenses
Mechanisms in tomato plants
Uses jasmonic, salicylic acid
Economic concerns in agriculture
Spread of plant diseases
Way Forward
Prevention and treatment
Laws against dodder seed import
Crop seed inspection
Non-host crop planting
Preemergent herbicides use
Physical removal of dodder
Use in Traditional Medicine
C. chinensis seeds for osteoporosis
Common in Chinese medicine

Cuscuta, commonly known as dodder or amarbel in India, is a genus of parasitic plants with over 201 species, mostly found in temperate and tropical regions, including Punjab, India. They are known for their parasitic nature, attaching to and wrapping around host plants to extract nutrients. The dodder’s significant impact lies in its economic threat to agriculture and its ability to spread plant diseases. Efforts to manage dodder infestations include legal restrictions on seed import, inspection of crop seeds, and agricultural practices like planting non-host crops and using preemergent herbicides. Interestingly, some species like C. chinensis are used in traditional Chinese medicine, notably for treating osteoporosis​​.

Pollution caused by plastic mind map
Recent News
UK's High Ambition Coalition
Aims to end plastic pollution by 2040
Founding member status
Global Treaty Discussion
Legally-binding proposal
Target to stop plastic pollution
Ongoing efforts
Key dates
Treaty negotiations start
Implementation phases for EPR from 2024
Environmental threat
Marine ecosystem impact
Global environmental challenge
Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for packaging
Phased introduction from 2024
Focus on household packaging waste
Modulated fees for recyclability
Recycling targets for plastic packaging
62% by 2030
Recycling Obligations
PRN/PERN system
Role of accredited reprocessors/exporters
Government Strategies
Environment Act
Plastic packaging tax
Measures to restrict plastic items
Carrier bag charge
United Kingdom
International involvement
High Ambition Coalition
United Nations Environment Programme
Public Accounts Committee
UK parliamentary committee
UK government
Environmental organizations
Legislation and reforms
Environment Act
EPR system
International Cooperation
Treaty negotiations
Collaboration with stakeholders
Environmental sustainability
Incentives for sustainable packaging
Reduction in plastic pollution
Implementation delays
EPR fee scheme complexity
Financial impact concerns
Risk of increased food prices
Way Forward
Aggressive targets
Comprehensive waste management strategies
Collaboration for effective action
Government, industry, and environmental groups

The report by the Public Accounts Committee on “Pollution caused by plastic” focuses on the UK’s efforts to combat plastic pollution. It highlights the current challenges in managing plastic waste, the steps being taken, such as the introduction of Extended Producer Responsibility for packaging, and the country’s participation in international efforts to address this global issue. The report emphasizes the need for comprehensive strategies, including stricter recycling targets and incentives for sustainable packaging, to effectively reduce plastic pollution and its environmental impact.

/ Nuclear Energy
Nuclear Fusion: Joint European Torus (JET) mind map
Recent News
Record Fusion Energy
69.26 Megajoules
Achieved in 2023
Surpasses 59 Megajoules in 2022
Previous Record 22.7 Megajoules in 1997
EUROfusion and UKAEA Collaboration
Conducted Experiments
Deuterium-Tritium Fuel Used
Focus on ITER and DEMO Projects
Global Significance
Milestone in Fusion Research
Implications for ITER and DEMO
Advances Fusion Energy Prospects
Operational Since 1983
Record Achieved in 2023
Final Experiments in 2023
Advance Fusion Energy Research
Demonstrate Fusion Power Viability
Support ITER and DEMO Development
Tokamak Fusion System
Doughnut-Shaped Vacuum Chamber
Plasma Generated from Hydrogen Fuel
Magnetic Coils for Confinement
Deuterium-Tritium Fuel
Essential for Fusion
Used in Record Experiment
Temperature and Pressure
Exceeds 150 Million Degrees Celsius
Necessary for Fusion Process
Located in Culham, UK
Largest Operational Tokamak
Integral to European Fusion Research
EUROfusion Consortium
4,800 Members
Scientists, Engineers, Experts
Collaboration Across Europe
UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA)
Operates JET
Focus on Fusion Research
International Research Community
Contributions from Various Countries
Shared Development of Fusion Technology
Plasma Containment
Tokamak Technology
Magnetic Field Confinement
Trial and Error
Data Analysis and Adjustment
Advancement in Fusion Technology
Paving Way for ITER and DEMO
Demonstrates Fusion's Potential
Environmental Impact
Low Carbon Energy Source
Potential to Reduce Emissions
Scientific Milestone
Deeper Understanding of Fusion Physics
Enhanced Predictability for Future Experiments
Technological Complexity
High Costs and Maintenance
Advanced Engineering Required
Fusion Viability
Operational Limitations
Long-Term Sustainability Questions
Way Forward
ITER and DEMO Projects
Scaling Up Fusion Experiments
Targeting Commercial Fusion Energy
Continued Research
Overcoming Technical Barriers
Fostering International Collaboration

The Joint European Torus (JET) is a pivotal project in the field of nuclear fusion energy, particularly in its application for power generation. Recently, JET achieved a significant milestone by setting a new world record in fusion energy output, producing 69.26 megajoules of heat during a single pulse. This record, achieved in 2023, surpassed the previous records set in 2022 and 1997. The JET project, a collaboration between the EUROfusion consortium and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), is the largest and most powerful operational tokamak fusion system in the world. It operates by creating a plasma from hydrogen fuel within a doughnut-shaped vacuum chamber, using extreme heat and pressure. This plasma is then confined and controlled by magnetic fields.

JET’s recent achievements are a significant step forward in the development of fusion energy, demonstrating the viability and potential of fusion power. This progress is crucial for the ITER project and the future DEMO power plant, both of which aim to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of fusion energy on a larger scale. JET’s work in advancing fusion technology, understanding fusion physics, and developing operational scenarios is essential for the future of low-carbon energy sources and tackling the global energy crisis.

However, the development of fusion energy faces several challenges, including the technological complexity of fusion systems, high costs, and questions about long-term sustainability. The way forward involves scaling up fusion experiments through projects like ITER and DEMO, overcoming technical barriers, and fostering international collaboration in fusion research.

India’s Request for Full Membership of IEA mind map
Recent News
IEA starts membership talks
Announced during IEA’s 2024 Ministerial Meeting
IEA's 50th Anniversary events
Held in Paris on 13-14 February 2024
Formal request in October 2023
Association since 2017
India's growing role
In global energy economy
Tackling energy, climate challenges
Strategic importance
For global energy security
Boost IEA’s international leverage
India's entry
Boost global energy security
Increase IEA's international influence
Requirements for membership
OECD membership
Oil stocks for 90 days of net imports
Legislation for CERM
Reporting requirements for oil companies
Contribution to IEA collective actions
Paris, France
Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Emphasized India’s role
IEA Executive Director Fatih Birol
Highlighted India's importance
Other personalities
President Emmanuel Macron of France
India’s Minister of External Affairs Subrahmanyam Jaishankar
Strategic partnership pathway
Enhance collaboration and engagement
India's perspective in international forums
Addressing challenges
US’s Inflation Reduction Act
India's strong economic growth
Rising energy demand
Membership prerequisites
OECD membership
Oil reserve capacity
Expectations for energy industry reforms
Way Forward
Discussion and negotiation
Possible amendments to IEA’s charter
India's efforts to meet requirements

India’s request for full membership in the International Energy Agency (IEA) represents a significant stride in global energy governance. Initiated in October 2023, this move comes after India’s association with the IEA since 2017. India’s evolving role in the global energy economy and the strategic importance of its inclusion are central to this development. Full membership in the IEA would not only enhance global energy security but also amplify the IEA’s international influence, especially in its interactions with the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). India’s robust economic growth and escalating energy demand make its participation increasingly vital. However, challenges remain, including meeting the IEA’s membership criteria like OECD membership and maintaining sufficient oil reserves. The way forward involves ongoing discussions and potential adjustments to the IEA’s framework to accommodate India’s unique position.

/ Geography
Terai Arc Landscape (TAL) mind map
Between river Yamuna and river Bagmati
Shivalik hills
Bhabhar areas
Terai flood plains
810km stretch
49,500 km² total area
30,000 km² in India
Protected areas
14 in total
Parsa National Park, Nepal
Chitwan National Park, Nepal
Banke National Park, Nepal
Bardia National Park, Nepal
Blackbuck Conservation Area, Nepal
Shuklaphanta Wildlife Reserve, Nepal
Valmiki National Park, India
Sohelwa Wildlife Sanctuary, India
Katarniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, India
Dudhwa National Park, India
Kishanpur Wildlife Sanctuary, India
Corbett National Park, India
Rajaji National Park, India
Pilibhit Tiger Reserve, India
9 in India
5 in Nepal
Bengal tiger
Indian rhinoceros
Asian elephant
Hispid hare
Sloth bear
South Asian river dolphin
Over 500 species
Bengal florican
Sarus crane
Black stork
Wide range of fish
Freshwater crustaceans
Conservation Efforts
2001 by Government of Nepal
Strategic Plans
Address conservation management
Tackle priority threats
Ensure socio-ecological integrity
WWF Involvement
Since 2000
Aims for habitat integrity
Establish wildlife corridors
Provide alternate livelihoods
Forest conversion
Infrastructure development
Wildlife crimes
Human-wildlife conflict
Unsustainable forest product extraction
Climate impacts
Forest fire
River diversions
Dense human population
Dependence on forests for resources
Ecological health
Survival of endangered species

The Terai Arc Landscape (TAL), stretching between the Yamuna and Bagmati rivers, encompasses various protected areas across India and Nepal. It is a hotspot for biodiversity, including mammals like the Bengal tiger and the Indian rhinoceros, and over 500 bird species. Conservation efforts have been ongoing since 2001, with strategic plans addressing threats and aiming for socio-ecological integrity. The region faces several challenges, including forest conversion and climate impacts. The survival of endangered species and the ecological health of the area underline the importance of these conservation efforts.

/ Consumers
E-Jagriti Portal mind map
Recent News
Launched in December 2023
Capacity Building Workshop
Held on 13 Feb 2024
Launch Date
December 2023
Modernization Needs
Advancements in technology
Changing consumer needs
Evolved from CONFONET software
Key Features
AI Integration
Reduces case backlog
Smart search
Voice-to-text conversion
Case Management
Case filing
Online fee payment
Case monitoring
Virtual Court Facility
Reduces disposal time
Minimizes physical appearances
Consumer Grievance Platforms
NCDRC Case Monitoring System
Across Consumer Commissions in India
Key Figures
Piyush Goyal
Union Minister for Consumer Affairs
Rohit Kumar Singh
Secretary, Department of Consumer Affairs
State Consumer Disputes Redressal Commissions
Technical support persons
Technological Innovation
Leveraging AI and ML
Online functionalities
Faster case resolutions
Virtual court access
Consumer Protection
Enhanced capabilities
Associated Risks
Increase in technological risks
Dark Patterns
Need for regulation
Way Forward
Jan Andolan
Spreading awareness
Continuous feedback
Technological Collaboration
Strategy for eliminating old cases
Real-time case handling
Guidelines for Dark Patterns
Prevent manipulative practices

‘E-Jagriti’ is a transformative portal launched by the Indian Government’s Department of Consumer Affairs in December 2023. This portal, evolving from the CONFONET software, integrates advanced features like AI for smart search and voice-to-text conversion, enhancing consumer protection and expediting grievance redressal. It includes functionalities for case filing, monitoring, and online fee payment, alongside a virtual court system to reduce physical court appearances. ‘E-Jagriti’ aims to bring consumer grievance platforms under one umbrella, promoting efficiency and accessibility. The initiative focuses on adapting to changing technological needs, improving consumer trust, and addressing new challenges such as the risk of ‘dark patterns’ in consumer interactions.

NeSDA Way Forward Annual Report 2023 mind map
Recent News
Released by DARPG
Highlights e-Service delivery progress
Report for the year 2023
Released in February 2024
To assess and enhance e-Governance services
Under NeSDA Framework
Total of 16,487 by December 2023
Increase from 11,614 in April 2023
Saturation Level
76% of mandatory e-Services achieved
Increase from 69% under NeSDA 2021
Single Unified Portal
Aim for e-Service delivery
Achieved by Kerala, Assam, Odisha, J&K
Across Indian States and UTs
Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances
Dr. Jitendra Singh
Minister of State
States and UTs
Jammu and Kashmir leads in e-Services
Organizing Conferences
In Bhopal, Mumbai, Guwahati
Monthly Meetings and Reviews
Sharing Best Practices
Sector-wise Focused Analysis
Improved e-Service Delivery
Empowerment of Citizens
Enhanced Access to Services
Digital Divide
Lack of Standardization and Interoperability
Bureaucratic Inertia
Cyber-security Concerns
Way Forward
Enhancing e-Governance Initiatives
Exploring Emerging Technologies
Increasing e-Service Saturation

The NeSDA Way Forward Annual Report 2023, issued by DARPG, focuses on the progress in electronic service (e-Service) delivery across Indian States and UTs. It marks a significant rise in the number of e-Services provided, showcasing an increase from 11,614 in April 2023 to 16,487 by December 2023. The report emphasizes the achievement of a 76% saturation level of mandatory e-Services, up from 69% in the previous assessment. Key aspects include the adoption of e-Service delivery through Single Unified Portals by states like Kerala, Assam, Odisha, and Jammu & Kashmir. The report outlines the challenges and future directions for enhancing e-governance in India.

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