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Psychology (Optional) Notes & Mind Maps

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    1.1 Definition of Psychology
  2. 1.2 Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century
  3. 1.3 Psychology and scientific methods
  4. 1.4 Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences
  5. 1.5 Application of Psychology to societal problems
    2.1 Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic, and prognostic
  7. 2.2 Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study, and experiments
  8. 2.3 Experimental, Non-Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs
  9. 2.4 Focused group discussions
  10. 2.5 Brainstorming
  11. 2.6 Grounded theory approach
    3.1 Major Steps in Psychological research
    6 Submodules
  13. 3.2 Fundamental versus applied research
  14. 3.3 Methods of Data Collection
    3 Submodules
  15. 3.4 Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental)
  16. 3.5 Application of Statistical Technique
    5 Submodules
  17. 3.6 Item Response Theory
    4.1 Growth and Development, Principles of Development
  19. 4.2 Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behavior
  20. 4.3 Influence of cultural factors in socialization
  21. 4.4 Life span development (Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span)
    5.1 Sensation
    2 Submodules
  23. 5.2 Attention: factors influencing attention
    1 Submodule
  24. 5.3 Perception
    11 Submodules
  25. 6. LEARNING
    6.1 Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models)
  26. 6.2 The Processes of extinction, discrimination, and generalization
  27. 6.3 Programmed learning
  28. 6.4 Probability Learning
  29. 6.5 Self-Instructional Learning
  30. 6.6 Types and the schedules of reinforcement
  31. 6.7 Escape, Avoidance and Punishment
  32. 6.8 Modeling
  33. 6.9 Social Learning
  34. 7. MEMORY
    7.1 Encoding and Remembering
  35. 7.2 Short term memory
  36. 7.3 Long term memory
  37. 7.4 Sensory Memory - Iconic, Echoic & Haptic Memory
  38. 7.5 Multistore Model of Memory
  39. 7.6 Levels of Processing
  40. 7.7 Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory
  41. 7.8 Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure
  42. 7.9 Metamemory
    8.1 Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
  44. 8.2 Concept formation processes
  45. 8.3 Information Processing
  46. 8.4 Reasoning and problem-solving
  47. 8.5 Facilitating and hindering factors in problem-solving
  48. 8.6 Methods of problem-solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity
  49. 8.7 Factors influencing decision making and judgment
  50. 8.8 Recent Trends in Thinking and Problem Solving
  51. 9. Motivation and Emotion
    9.1 Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion
  52. 9.2 Measurement of motivation and emotion
  53. 9.3 Effects of motivation and emotion on behavior
  54. 9.4 Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
  55. 9.5 Factors influencing intrinsic motivation
  56. 9.6 Emotional competence and the related issues
  57. 10. Intelligence and Aptitude
    10.1 Concept of intelligence and aptitude
  58. 10.2 Nature and theories of intelligence: Spearman, Thurstone, Guilford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P Das
  59. 10.3 Emotional Intelligence
  60. 10.4 Social Intelligence
  61. 10.5 Measurement of intelligence and aptitudes
  62. 10.6 Concept of IQ
  63. 10.7 Deviation IQ
  64. 10.8 The constancy of IQ
  65. 10.9 Measurement of multiple intelligence
  66. 10.10 Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
  67. 11. Personality
    11.1 Definition and concept of personality
  68. 11.2 Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches)
  69. 11.3 Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test)
  70. 11.4 The Indian approach to personality
  71. 11.5 Training for personality development
  72. 11.6 Latest approaches like big 5-factor theory
  73. 11.7 The notion of self in different traditions
  74. 12. Attitudes, Values, and Interests
    12.1 Definition of attitudes, values, and interests
  75. 12.2 Components of attitudes
  76. 12.3 Formation and maintenance of attitudes
  77. 12.4 Measurement of attitudes, values, and interests
  78. 12.5 Theories of attitude change
  79. 12.6 Strategies for fostering values
  80. 12.7 Formation of stereotypes and prejudices
  81. 12.8 Changing others behavior
  82. 12.9 Theories of attribution
  83. 12.10 Recent trends in Attitudes, Values and Interests
  84. 13. Language and Communication
    13.1 Properties of Human Language
  85. 13.2 Structure of language and linguistic hierarchy
  86. 13.3 Language acquisition: Predisposition & critical period hypothesis
  87. 13.4 Theories of language development: Skinner and Chomsky
  88. 13.5 Process and types of communication – effective communication training
  89. 14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology
    14.1 Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing
  90. 14.2 Artificial Intelligence and Psychology
  91. 14.3 Psychocybernetics
  92. 14.4 Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules
  93. 14.5 Dreams
  94. 14.6 Stimulus deprivation
  95. 14.7 Meditation
  96. 14.8 Hypnotic/drug-induced states
  97. 14.9 Extrasensory perception
  98. 14.10 Intersensory perception & simulation studies
  99. 15. Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences
    15.1 The nature of individual differences
  100. 15.2 Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests
  101. 15.3 Types of psychological tests
  102. 15.4 Use, misuse, limitation & ethical issues of psychological tests
  103. 15.5 Concept of health-ill health
  104. 15.6 Positive health & well being
  105. 15.7 Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders)
  106. 15.8 Factors influencing positive health, well being, lifestyle and quality of life
  107. 15.9 Happiness Disposition
  108. 16. Therapeutic Approaches
    16.1 Introduction: Overview of Therapeutic Approaches and Their Importance in Mental Health
  109. 16.2 Psychodynamic therapies
  110. 16.3 Behavior Therapies
  111. 16.4 Client centered therapy
  112. 16.5 Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation)
  113. 16.6 Fostering mental health
  114. 17. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour
    17.1 Personnel selection and training
  115. 17.2 Use of psychological tests in the industry
  116. 17.3 Training and human resource development
  117. 17.4 Theories of work motivation – Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom
  118. 17.5 Advertising and marketing
  119. 17.6 Stress and its management
  120. 17.7 Ergonomics
  121. 17.8 Consumer Psychology
  122. 17.9 Managerial effectiveness
  123. 17.10 Transformational leadership
  124. 17.11 Sensitivity training
  125. 17.12 Power and politics in organizations
  126. 18. Application of Psychology to Educational Field
    18.1 Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process
  127. 18.2 Learning Styles
  128. 18.3 Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training
  129. 18.4 Training for improving memory and better academic achievement
  130. 18.5 Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and career counseling
  131. 18.6 Use of psychological tests in educational institutions
  132. 18.7 Effective strategies in guidance programs
  133. 19. Community Psychology
    19.1 Definition and concept of community psychology
  134. 19.2 Use of small groups in social action
  135. 19.3 Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems
  136. 19.4 Group decision making and leadership for social change
  137. 19.5 Effective strategies for social change
  138. 20. Rehabilitation Psychology
    20.1 Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programs-role of psychologists
  139. 20.2 Organising of services for the rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons
  140. 20.3 Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behavior
  141. 20.4 Rehabilitation of victims of violence
  142. 20.5 Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims
  143. 20.6 The role of social agencies
  144. 21. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups
    21.1 The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation
  145. 21.2 Social, physical, cultural, and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups
  146. 21.3 Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development
  147. 21.4 Relative and prolonged deprivation
  148. 22. Psychological problems of social integration
    22.1 The concept of social integration
  149. 22.2 The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice
  150. 22.3 Nature and the manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group
  151. 22.4 Causal factors of social conflicts and prejudices
  152. 22.5 Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices
  153. 22.6 Measures to achieve social integration
  154. 23. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media
    23.1 The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists
  155. 23.2 Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media
  156. 23.3 Distance learning through IT and mass media
  157. 23.4 Entrepreneurship through e-commerce
  158. 23.5 Multilevel marketing
  159. 23.6 Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media
  160. 23.7 Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology
  161. 24. Psychology and Economic development
    24.1 Achievement motivation and economic development
  162. 24.2 Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior
  163. 24.3 Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development
  164. 24.4 Consumer rights and consumer awareness
  165. 24.5 Government policies for the promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entrepreneurs
  166. 25. Application of psychology to environment and related fields
    25.1 Environmental psychology- effects of noise, pollution, and crowding
  167. 25.2 Population psychology: psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density
  168. 25.3 Motivating for small family norm
  169. 25.4 Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of the environment
  170. 26. Application of psychology in other fields
    26.1 [Military Psychology] Devising psychological tests for defense personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling
  171. 26.2 [Military Psychology] Training psychologists to work with defense personnel in promoting positive health
  172. 26.3 [Military Psychology] Human engineering in defense
  173. 26.4 Sports Psychology
  174. 26.5 Media influences on pro and antisocial behavior
  175. 26.6 Psychology of Terrorism
  176. 27. Psychology of Gender
    27.1 Issues of discrimination
  177. 27.2 Management of Diversity
  178. 27.3 Glass ceiling effect
  179. 27.4 Self-fulfilling prophesy
  180. 27.5 Women and Indian society
Module 4 of 180
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1.4 Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences

Relation to Social Sciences


  • Psychology is a social science that studies the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes of individuals and groups.
  • It is a broad field that encompasses various subdisciplines, such as developmental psychology, clinical psychology, social psychology, cognitive psychology, among others.
  • While psychology is distinct from other social sciences, it is closely related to them and often intersects with their theories and methods.


  • Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
  • It often intersects with psychology in the study of consumer behavior, which examines how individuals and groups make decisions about what to buy and how much to spend.
  • Economics also intersects with psychology in the study of how economic conditions, such as unemployment or income inequality, affect individuals’ mental health and well-being.

Political Science

  • Political science is the social science that studies the systems, processes, and behavior of governments and other political institutions.
  • It often intersects with psychology in the study of political attitudes and behaviors, such as how individuals form their political beliefs and how they participate in the political process.
  • Political science also intersects with psychology in the study of the psychological effects of political events and policies, such as the impact of war or political polarization on individuals’ mental health.


  • Geography is the social science that studies the Earth’s landscapes, environments, and phenomena, as well as the human interactions with these natural and man-made features.
  • It often intersects with psychology in the study of how physical and social environments influence individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
  • For example, psychologists may study how living in a densely populated city affects individuals’ stress levels and social interactions, or how exposure to natural environments affects individuals’ mental health and well-being.


  • Sociology is the social science that studies human social behavior, societies, and social institutions.
  • It often intersects with psychology in the study of social interactions, group dynamics, and social influence.
  • For example, sociologists may study how social norms shape individuals’ behavior, while psychologists may examine how these norms affect individuals’ self-esteem and mental health.


  • Anthropology is the social science that studies the origins, cultures, and behaviors of humans and human societies.
  • It often intersects with psychology in the study of cultural practices and customs, and how these practices and customs shape individuals’ beliefs, values, and behaviors.
  • Psychologists may also study the psychological effects of acculturation, or the process of adapting to a new culture, on individuals’ identity and well-being.


  • Psychologists may provide expert testimony in court cases on topics such as eyewitness testimony, false memories, and psychological disorders.
  • They may also be called upon to evaluate the mental health of defendants in criminal cases, plaintiffs and witnesses in civil cases.
  • A defendant’s mental health may be taken into consideration when determining their sentence, and psychologists may work with offenders to address underlying psychological issues as part of their rehabilitation.

Relation to Natural Sciences


  • One of the key ways in which psychology intersects with the natural sciences is through its focus on the biological foundations of behavior and cognition.
  • The human brain, the most complex and intricate structure in the known universe, is the site of all our thoughts, feelings, and actions. For example, neuropsychologists study the structure and function of the brain and nervous system in order to understand how the brain processes information and generates behavior. They use a variety of techniques, including brain imaging, electrophysiology, and pharmacology.
  • Psychologists also examine the role of hormones and genetics in shaping behavior. For instance, research has shown that certain hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen, can influence aggression and sexual behavior. Genetic studies have identified specific genes that are associated with certain personality traits, such as risk-taking and impulsivity.


  • Another way in which psychology intersects with the natural sciences is through the study of the evolutionary foundations of behavior. Evolutionary psychology is a subfield of psychology that seeks to understand the psychological adaptations that have evolved in humans over the course of millions of years. These adaptations are thought to have helped our ancestors survive and reproduce in their environments, and they continue to shape our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors today.
  • For example, evolutionary psychologists have studied the psychological mechanisms that help us navigate the social world, such as our ability to recognize and remember faces, form and maintain relationships, and communicate with others. They have also explored the ways in which our psychology is shaped by the environment and how we adapt to changing circumstances.


  • Genetics is the scientific study of inherited traits and the genes that underlie them.
  • It often intersects with psychology in the study of the genetic basis of psychological traits and disorders.
  • For example, geneticists may study the genetic basis of intelligence, while psychologists may examine the environmental factors that interact with genetic influences on psychological traits.


  • Psychology also has strong connections to the field of ecology, which is the study of the relationships between organisms and their environments. Ecological psychology focuses on the ways in which our perception and behavior are influenced by the physical and social environment.
  • For example, research in ecological psychology has shown that the layout and design of our built environment, such as streets, buildings, and public spaces, can have a powerful impact on our behavior. Well-designed neighborhoods and streetscapes can encourage walking and other physical activity, while poorly designed environments can discourage it. The presence of natural elements, such as trees, plants, and water, can have a calming effect on people and improve their well-being.


  • Psychology also has connections to the physical sciences, particularly physics and engineering. Psychophysics is the study of the relationship between physical stimuli and our psychological experiences of them. Psychophysicists use techniques from physics, such as measuring the intensity and duration of stimuli, to study how we perceive the world around us.
  • Engineering psychology is the application of psychological principles to the design and evaluation of products, systems, and environments. Engineers and psychologists work together to design products, such as automobiles, airplanes, and computer interfaces, that are safe, efficient, and user-friendly.


  • Psychopharmacology, the study of the effects of drugs on the mind and behavior, is another area in which psychology intersects with chemistry. Psychopharmacologists use techniques from chemistry, such as synthesizing and analyzing drugs, to study the effects of these drugs on brain function and behavior.
  • Psychologists may also study the role of chemicals such as neurotransmitters and hormones in shaping behavior and emotion. For example, research has shown that imbalances in neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine can contribute to psychological disorders such as depression and anxiety.


  • Psychology also has connections to the field of mathematics, particularly through the use of statistical and computational techniques. Psychologists often use statistical methods to analyze data and test hypotheses. They also use computational models to simulate psychological processes, such as decision-making and learning, and understand how these processes work in the brain.
  • Mathematical psychology: is a subfield of psychology that uses mathematical techniques to study psychological phenomena. For instance, mathematical psychologists have used mathematical models to understand how people process and remember information, how they make decisions, and how they learn and adapt to new situations.


  • Space psychology is the study of the psychological effects of space travel and living and working in space. Space psychologists examine the ways in which the physical and social environment of space affects the cognition, behavior, and well-being of astronauts and other space travelers.
  • For example, research in space psychology has shown that long-duration space missions can have a variety of psychological effects, such as isolation, confinement, and exposure to high levels of radiation. Space psychologists work with NASA and other space agencies to understand these effects and develop strategies to mitigate them, such as through the use of virtual reality and other psychological interventions.


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