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Psychology (Optional) Notes & Mind Maps

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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Definition of Psychology
  2. 1.2 Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century
  3. 1.3 Psychology and scientific methods
  4. 1.4 Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences
  5. 1.5 Application of Psychology to societal problems
  6. 2. METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
    2.1 Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic, and prognostic
  7. 2.2 Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study, and experiments
  8. 2.3 Experimental, Non-Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs
  9. 2.4 Focused group discussions
  10. 2.5 Brainstorming
  11. 2.6 Grounded theory approach
  12. 3. RESEARCH METHODS
    3.1 Major Steps in Psychological research
    6 Submodules
  13. 3.2 Fundamental versus applied research
  14. 3.3 Methods of Data Collection
    3 Submodules
  15. 3.4 Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental)
  16. 3.5 Application of Statistical Technique
    5 Submodules
  17. 3.6 Item Response Theory
  18. 4. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
    4.1 Growth and Development, Principles of Development
  19. 4.2 Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behavior
  20. 4.3 Influence of cultural factors in socialization
  21. 4.4 Life span development (Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span)
  22. 5. SENSATION, ATTENTION, AND PERCEPTION
    5.1 Sensation
    2 Submodules
  23. 5.2 Attention: factors influencing attention
    1 Submodule
  24. 5.3 Perception
    11 Submodules
  25. 6. LEARNING
    6.1 Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models)
  26. 6.2 The Processes of extinction, discrimination, and generalization
  27. 6.3 Programmed learning
  28. 6.4 Probability Learning
  29. 6.5 Self-Instructional Learning
  30. 6.6 Types and the schedules of reinforcement
  31. 6.7 Escape, Avoidance and Punishment
  32. 6.8 Modeling
  33. 6.9 Social Learning
  34. 7. MEMORY
    7.1 Encoding and Remembering
  35. 7.2 Short term memory
  36. 7.3 Long term memory
  37. 7.4 Sensory Memory - Iconic, Echoic & Haptic Memory
  38. 7.5 Multistore Model of Memory
  39. 7.6 Levels of Processing
  40. 7.7 Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory
  41. 7.8 Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure
  42. 7.9 Metamemory
  43. 8. THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING
    8.1 Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
  44. 8.2 Concept formation processes
  45. 8.3 Information Processing
  46. 8.4 Reasoning and problem-solving
  47. 8.5 Facilitating and hindering factors in problem-solving
  48. 8.6 Methods of problem-solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity
  49. 8.7 Factors influencing decision making and judgment
  50. 8.8 Recent Trends in Thinking and Problem Solving
  51. 9. Motivation and Emotion
    9.1 Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion
  52. 9.2 Measurement of motivation and emotion
  53. 9.3 Effects of motivation and emotion on behavior
  54. 9.4 Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
  55. 9.5 Factors influencing intrinsic motivation
  56. 9.6 Emotional competence and the related issues
  57. 10. Intelligence and Aptitude
    10.1 Concept of intelligence and aptitude
  58. 10.2 Nature and theories of intelligence: Spearman, Thurstone, Guilford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P Das
  59. 10.3 Emotional Intelligence
  60. 10.4 Social Intelligence
  61. 10.5 Measurement of intelligence and aptitudes
  62. 10.6 Concept of IQ
  63. 10.7 Deviation IQ
  64. 10.8 The constancy of IQ
  65. 10.9 Measurement of multiple intelligence
  66. 10.10 Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
  67. 11. Personality
    11.1 Definition and concept of personality
  68. 11.2 Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches)
  69. 11.3 Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test)
  70. 11.4 The Indian approach to personality
  71. 11.5 Training for personality development
  72. 11.6 Latest approaches like big 5-factor theory
  73. 11.7 The notion of self in different traditions
  74. 12. Attitudes, Values, and Interests
    12.1 Definition of attitudes, values, and interests
  75. 12.2 Components of attitudes
  76. 12.3 Formation and maintenance of attitudes
  77. 12.4 Measurement of attitudes, values, and interests
  78. 12.5 Theories of attitude change
  79. 12.6 Strategies for fostering values
  80. 12.7 Formation of stereotypes and prejudices
  81. 12.8 Changing others behavior
  82. 12.9 Theories of attribution
  83. 12.10 Recent trends in Attitudes, Values and Interests
  84. 13. Language and Communication
    13.1 Properties of Human Language
  85. 13.2 Structure of language and linguistic hierarchy
  86. 13.3 Language acquisition: Predisposition & critical period hypothesis
  87. 13.4 Theories of language development: Skinner and Chomsky
  88. 13.5 Process and types of communication – effective communication training
  89. 14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology
    14.1 Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing
  90. 14.2 Artificial Intelligence and Psychology
  91. 14.3 Psychocybernetics
  92. 14.4 Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules
  93. 14.5 Dreams
  94. 14.6 Stimulus deprivation
  95. 14.7 Meditation
  96. 14.8 Hypnotic/drug-induced states
  97. 14.9 Extrasensory perception
  98. 14.10 Intersensory perception & simulation studies
  99. 15. Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences
    15.1 The nature of individual differences
  100. 15.2 Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests
  101. 15.3 Types of psychological tests
  102. 15.4 Use, misuse, limitation & ethical issues of psychological tests
  103. 15.5 Concept of health-ill health
  104. 15.6 Positive health & well being
  105. 15.7 Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders)
  106. 15.8 Factors influencing positive health, well being, lifestyle and quality of life
  107. 15.9 Happiness Disposition
  108. 16. Therapeutic Approaches
    16.1 Introduction: Overview of Therapeutic Approaches and Their Importance in Mental Health
  109. 16.2 Psychodynamic therapies
  110. 16.3 Behavior Therapies
  111. 16.4 Client centered therapy
  112. 16.5 Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation)
  113. 16.6 Fostering mental health
  114. 17. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour
    17.1 Personnel selection and training
  115. 17.2 Use of psychological tests in the industry
  116. 17.3 Training and human resource development
  117. 17.4 Theories of work motivation – Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom
  118. 17.5 Advertising and marketing
  119. 17.6 Stress and its management
  120. 17.7 Ergonomics
  121. 17.8 Consumer Psychology
  122. 17.9 Managerial effectiveness
  123. 17.10 Transformational leadership
  124. 17.11 Sensitivity training
  125. 17.12 Power and politics in organizations
  126. 18. Application of Psychology to Educational Field
    18.1 Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process
  127. 18.2 Learning Styles
  128. 18.3 Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training
  129. 18.4 Training for improving memory and better academic achievement
  130. 18.5 Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and career counseling
  131. 18.6 Use of psychological tests in educational institutions
  132. 18.7 Effective strategies in guidance programs
  133. 19. Community Psychology
    19.1 Definition and concept of community psychology
  134. 19.2 Use of small groups in social action
  135. 19.3 Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems
  136. 19.4 Group decision making and leadership for social change
  137. 19.5 Effective strategies for social change
  138. 20. Rehabilitation Psychology
    20.1 Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programs-role of psychologists
  139. 20.2 Organising of services for the rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons
  140. 20.3 Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behavior
  141. 20.4 Rehabilitation of victims of violence
  142. 20.5 Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims
  143. 20.6 The role of social agencies
  144. 21. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups
    21.1 The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation
  145. 21.2 Social, physical, cultural, and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups
  146. 21.3 Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development
  147. 21.4 Relative and prolonged deprivation
  148. 22. Psychological problems of social integration
    22.1 The concept of social integration
  149. 22.2 The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice
  150. 22.3 Nature and the manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group
  151. 22.4 Causal factors of social conflicts and prejudices
  152. 22.5 Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices
  153. 22.6 Measures to achieve social integration
  154. 23. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media
    23.1 The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists
  155. 23.2 Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media
  156. 23.3 Distance learning through IT and mass media
  157. 23.4 Entrepreneurship through e-commerce
  158. 23.5 Multilevel marketing
  159. 23.6 Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media
  160. 23.7 Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology
  161. 24. Psychology and Economic development
    24.1 Achievement motivation and economic development
  162. 24.2 Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior
  163. 24.3 Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development
  164. 24.4 Consumer rights and consumer awareness
  165. 24.5 Government policies for the promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entrepreneurs
  166. 25. Application of psychology to environment and related fields
    25.1 Environmental psychology- effects of noise, pollution, and crowding
  167. 25.2 Population psychology: psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density
  168. 25.3 Motivating for small family norm
  169. 25.4 Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of the environment
  170. 26. Application of psychology in other fields
    26.1 [Military Psychology] Devising psychological tests for defense personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling
  171. 26.2 [Military Psychology] Training psychologists to work with defense personnel in promoting positive health
  172. 26.3 [Military Psychology] Human engineering in defense
  173. 26.4 Sports Psychology
  174. 26.5 Media influences on pro and antisocial behavior
  175. 26.6 Psychology of Terrorism
  176. 27. Psychology of Gender
    27.1 Issues of discrimination
  177. 27.2 Management of Diversity
  178. 27.3 Glass ceiling effect
  179. 27.4 Self-fulfilling prophesy
  180. 27.5 Women and Indian society
Module 54 of 180
In Progress

9.4 Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation

I. Introduction

A. Explanation of motivation

– Motivation refers to the driving force that influences individuals to behave in a certain way

– It is the reason behind why we do what we do

– It is a complex concept that has been studied in various fields, including psychology, sociology, and neuroscience

B. Definition of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

– Intrinsic motivation refers to the behavior that is driven by internal rewards such as enjoyment, satisfaction, and curiosity

– Extrinsic motivation refers to the behavior that is driven by external rewards such as money, praise, and recognition

C. Importance of understanding the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation

– Understanding the distinction between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is important for several reasons:

* It helps individuals identify what motivates them and what drives their behavior

* It can help individuals set goals that align with their values and interests

* It can help organizations create effective reward systems that motivate employees

  • * It can help educators create effective learning environments that promote intrinsic motivation and engagement

II. Intrinsic Motivation

A. Definition of Intrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation is the desire to engage in a behavior because it is inherently satisfying or interesting. It is not driven by external rewards, but rather by the inherent pleasure and satisfaction of the activity itself. Intrinsic motivation can come from many sources, such as personal interests, enjoyment, curiosity, or a sense of accomplishment.

B. Examples of Intrinsic Motivation

Examples of intrinsic motivation include:

  • Reading a book because you enjoy the story and want to find out what happens next
  • Playing a musical instrument because you find it satisfying and enjoy the challenge of mastering new pieces
  • Engaging in a sport because you enjoy the physical activity and the feeling of being part of a team
  • Solving a puzzle because you find it intellectually stimulating and enjoy the sense of accomplishment when you solve it

C. Factors that Enhance or Detract from Intrinsic Motivation

Several factors can enhance or detract from intrinsic motivation. Some of these factors include:

  • Autonomy: Having control over one’s actions and decisions can enhance intrinsic motivation. When individuals feel that they have choice and agency in their lives, they are more likely to engage in behaviors that align with their values and interests.
  • Competence: Feeling competent and capable in a particular activity can enhance intrinsic motivation. When individuals feel that they are capable of succeeding at a task, they are more likely to be motivated to engage in that activity.
  • Relatedness: Feeling connected to others can enhance intrinsic motivation. When individuals feel that they are part of a community or have social support, they are more likely to be motivated to engage in activities that align with that community or support system.
  • External Rewards: Offering external rewards can detract from intrinsic motivation. When individuals are given rewards for behaviors that they previously engaged in for internal reasons, they may begin to perceive those behaviors as being motivated by the external rewards, rather than their own intrinsic interest.

D. Benefits of Intrinsic Motivation

There are many benefits to intrinsic motivation. Some of these benefits include:

  • Increased engagement: When individuals are intrinsically motivated, they are more engaged in the activity and more likely to persist in the face of challenges.
  • Improved performance: When individuals are intrinsically motivated, they are more likely to perform at a high level because they are personally invested in the activity.
  • Greater satisfaction: When individuals are intrinsically motivated, they experience a greater sense of satisfaction and enjoyment from the activity.
  • Greater well-being: When individuals engage in activities that are intrinsically motivating, they experience greater psychological well-being and lower levels of stress and burnout.

III. Extrinsic Motivation

A. Definition of Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic motivation is the desire to engage in a behavior because of external rewards or consequences. It is driven by external factors such as money, grades, or praise, rather than internal satisfaction or enjoyment. Extrinsic motivation can be either positive, such as receiving a reward for good behavior, or negative, such as avoiding punishment.

B. Examples of Extrinsic Motivation

Examples of extrinsic motivation include:

  • Working overtime for a bonus
  • Studying for a good grade
  • Cleaning the house to receive praise from a partner
  • Avoiding a speeding ticket by following the speed limit

C. Factors that Enhance or Detract from Extrinsic Motivation

Several factors can enhance or detract from extrinsic motivation. Some of these factors include:

  • Rewards: Offering a reward can enhance extrinsic motivation. When individuals receive a reward for a behavior, they are more likely to engage in that behavior again in the future.
  • Contingent rewards: Offering a contingent reward can detract from extrinsic motivation. When individuals receive a reward that is contingent on performing a particular behavior, they may begin to see that behavior as being motivated solely by the external reward, rather than their own internal motivation.
  • Feedback: Providing feedback can enhance extrinsic motivation. When individuals receive feedback that is positive and reinforces their behavior, they are more likely to continue engaging in that behavior.
  • Competition: Competition can enhance extrinsic motivation. When individuals are competing against others for a reward, they may be more motivated to engage in the behavior to win the reward.

D. Benefits and Drawbacks of Extrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic motivation has both benefits and drawbacks. Some of these include:

Benefits:

  • Increased performance: When individuals are extrinsically motivated, they may perform better because they are motivated by the external reward or consequence.
  • Goal attainment: Extrinsic motivation can help individuals attain goals that may be difficult or challenging.
  • Establishing expectations: Extrinsic motivation can help establish expectations for behavior, particularly in organizational settings.

Drawbacks:

  • Decreased creativity: When individuals are motivated solely by external rewards, they may be less creative in their approach to the task at hand.
  • Reduced enjoyment: When individuals are motivated solely by external rewards, they may experience a reduced sense of enjoyment or satisfaction from the activity.
  • Short-term focus: Extrinsic motivation may result in a short-term focus on the task at hand, rather than a long-term investment in the activity.

IV. Differences Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

A. Definition of Differences

The differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation refer to the underlying causes and consequences of behavior. Intrinsic motivation is driven by internal factors such as enjoyment, satisfaction, and curiosity, while extrinsic motivation is driven by external factors such as rewards, punishment, and consequences.

B. Explanation of Differences

The main differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation include:

  • Source of motivation: Intrinsic motivation comes from within an individual, while extrinsic motivation comes from external factors.
  • Type of reward: Intrinsic motivation is driven by internal rewards, while extrinsic motivation is driven by external rewards.
  • Nature of behavior: Intrinsic motivation leads to behavior that is motivated by personal interests, values, and goals, while extrinsic motivation leads to behavior that is motivated by external rewards or consequences.
  • Consequences of behavior: Intrinsic motivation leads to behavior that is intrinsically satisfying and enjoyable, while extrinsic motivation leads to behavior that is motivated by external rewards or consequences.

C. Examples of How Differences Manifest in Various Contexts

The differences between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can manifest in various contexts, such as:

  • Education: Intrinsic motivation leads to students who are engaged in the material and motivated to learn for personal satisfaction and growth, while extrinsic motivation may lead to students who are only motivated by grades or external rewards.
  • Workplace: Intrinsic motivation leads to employees who are engaged in their work and motivated to improve their skills, while extrinsic motivation may lead to employees who are only motivated by bonuses or promotions.
  • Sports: Intrinsic motivation leads to athletes who are motivated by their love of the sport and personal goals, while extrinsic motivation may lead to athletes who are only motivated by external rewards such as money or endorsements.

D. The Importance of Balancing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Balancing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is important for individuals, educators, and organizations to promote engagement, learning, and success. Some ways to balance intrinsic and extrinsic motivation include:

  • Aligning external rewards with intrinsic interests and values
  • Providing opportunities for autonomy and choice
  • Emphasizing personal growth and development
  • Providing opportunities for feedback and recognition

Balancing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can lead to individuals who are motivated to engage in behavior for both internal and external reasons, resulting in greater engagement, performance, and well-being.

V. The Role of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation in Work and Education

A. The Importance of Motivation in Work and Education

Motivation is essential in work and education because it influences the direction, intensity, and persistence of behavior. When individuals are motivated, they are more likely to engage in behaviors that lead to success, such as learning, skill development, and performance. Lack of motivation, on the other hand, can lead to disengagement, poor performance, and low job satisfaction.

B. The Impact of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation on Work and Education

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can have different impacts on work and education. Intrinsic motivation is associated with higher levels of engagement, performance, and well-being, while extrinsic motivation is associated with lower levels of creativity, enjoyment, and long-term commitment.

In work, intrinsic motivation is associated with higher job satisfaction, commitment, and performance, while extrinsic motivation is associated with lower job satisfaction and commitment. In education, intrinsic motivation is associated with greater learning, engagement, and achievement, while extrinsic motivation is associated with lower levels of creativity, intrinsic interest, and long-term learning.

C. Strategies for Increasing Intrinsic Motivation in Work and Education

Some strategies for increasing intrinsic motivation in work and education include:

  • Providing opportunities for autonomy and choice
  • Offering challenging and meaningful work
  • Encouraging personal growth and development
  • Creating a positive and supportive work environment
  • Encouraging collaboration and social support

D. Strategies for Using Extrinsic Motivation Effectively in Work and Education

Some strategies for using extrinsic motivation effectively in work and education include:

  • Aligning external rewards with intrinsic interests and values
  • Providing opportunities for feedback and recognition
  • Offering contingent rewards to support intrinsic motivation
  • Setting achievable goals and expectations
  • Avoiding over-reliance on extrinsic motivation

Using extrinsic motivation effectively can enhance intrinsic motivation and lead to greater engagement, performance, and well-being.

VI. The Relationship Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

A. Definition of the Relationship Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

The relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation refers to how these two types of motivation interact and influence each other. While intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are often seen as opposing forces, they can also work together to influence an individual’s behavior and engagement.

B. The Impact of Extrinsic Motivation on Intrinsic Motivation

Extrinsic motivation can have both positive and negative impacts on intrinsic motivation. When external rewards are used to recognize and support an individual’s intrinsic motivation, it can enhance and sustain intrinsic motivation. However, when external rewards are used to replace or diminish an individual’s intrinsic motivation, it can have a negative impact and reduce intrinsic motivation.

C. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation in Sustaining Extrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic motivation can play a critical role in sustaining extrinsic motivation. When individuals are motivated by both internal and external factors, they are more likely to persist in the face of challenges, maintain high levels of engagement, and experience greater well-being.

D. Strategies for Balancing Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Balancing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can be challenging but is important for promoting engagement, performance, and well-being. Some strategies for balancing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation include:

  • Aligning external rewards with intrinsic interests and values
  • Providing opportunities for autonomy and choice
  • Offering contingent rewards to support intrinsic motivation
  • Emphasizing personal growth and development
  • Avoiding over-reliance on extrinsic motivation

Balancing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can lead to greater engagement, performance, and well-being in various contexts, including work and education.

VII. Conclusion

A. Summary of Key Points

  • Intrinsic motivation is driven by internal rewards such as enjoyment and curiosity, while extrinsic motivation is driven by external rewards such as money and praise.
  • Intrinsic motivation is associated with higher levels of engagement, performance, and well-being, while extrinsic motivation is associated with lower levels of creativity, enjoyment, and long-term commitment.
  • Balancing intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is important for promoting engagement, performance, and well-being in work and education.
  • The relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is complex, and understanding this relationship is essential for promoting engagement, performance, and well-being.

B. The Importance of Understanding Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation

Understanding intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is important for individuals, educators, and organizations to create environments that promote engagement, learning, and success. By recognizing the impact of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, individuals can identify what motivates them and what drives their behavior, while educators and organizations can create effective learning environments that promote intrinsic motivation and engagement.

C. Future Directions for Research on Motivation

There are several areas for future research on motivation, including:

  • Examining the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in various contexts
  • Identifying the factors that enhance or detract from intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
  • Developing effective interventions to promote intrinsic motivation and balance intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
  • Exploring the role of culture and individual differences in motivation

By furthering our understanding of motivation, we can create environments that promote engagement, learning, and success.

In conclusion, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation are important drivers of human behavior that can impact engagement, performance, and well-being in various contexts. Understanding the impact of these types of motivation and implementing effective strategies to balance intrinsic and extrinsic motivation can lead to greater success and well-being.

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