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2.5 Brainstorming


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I. Introduction to Brainstorming in Psychological Research

  • Brainstorming:
    • A tool for generating new ideas and solving problems in the field of psychology
    • A group problem-solving technique, first introduced in 1950s by Alex Faickney Osborn
      Involves a group of people coming together to generate as many ideas as possible related to a specific problem or question
    • Ideas are generated through spontaneous and freewheeling discussion
    • Ideas are not evaluated or judged until after the brainstorming session
    • Commonly used to generate new research questions, hypotheses, or experimental designs
    • Can also be used to solve a wide range of problems, such as improving study design or identifying new treatment options
    • Allows researchers to generate a large number of ideas in a short time, can be used to guide further study or experimentation.
  • Why brainstorming is important:
    • Brainstorming is a powerful tool for generating new ideas and solving problems in groups.
    • It has been widely used in various fields, including psychology, for generating research ideas and for problem-solving.
    • Brainstorming can foster creativity and help overcome the limitations of individual thinking.
    • It promotes participation, sharing and collective intelligence in a group setting.

II. Theoretical Foundations of Brainstorming

  • Overview of the history and development of brainstorming:
    • Brainstorming was first introduced in the 1950s by Alex Faickney Osborn, a creative advertising executive. He published the book ‘Applied Imagination’ which was an influential work on brainstorming.
    • Over time, researchers have been proposed new methods and theories that can enhance the brainstorming process.
    • For instance, Osborn-Parnes model was further developed into the SCAMPER model, which adds more specific techniques that can be used during brainstorming.
  • Key theories and models of brainstorming:
    • The Osborn-Parnes model: This model is the original brainstorming process as proposed by Osborn, which consists of four steps: focus, fluency, flexibility, and elaboration. It focuses on generating many ideas, not evaluating them right away.
    • Social facilitation theory: This theory suggests that the presence of others can lead to improved performance on simple or well-learned tasks. In brainstorming, this theory suggests that individuals will be more likely to come up with ideas when working with others.
    • Social loafing theory: This theory suggests that individuals may exert less effort in a group setting because of the diffusion of responsibility. This theory can help explain why some individuals in a brainstorming session may not contribute as much as others.
    • Group polarization theory: This theory suggests that people tend to adopt more extreme positions in a group setting. This theory can help explain the phenomenon of groups moving towards more extreme ideas during brainstorming session.
  • Criticisms and limitations of brainstorming:
    • One of the main criticisms of brainstorming is the “production blocking” phenomenon, where individuals are unable to think of new ideas because they are occupied listening to others’ ideas. To overcome this, researchers have suggested techniques such as “brainwriting” which are less prone to this problem.
    • Another criticism is that brainstorming can lead to “social loafing,” where some individuals may not contribute as much to the group. Researchers have proposed strategies such as assigned roles, rewards, and alternating group sizes to overcome this problem.
    • Brainstorming is also prone to “groupthink,” where the pressure to conform to the majority’s views can lead to poor decision making. To overcome this, researchers have proposed methods such as “devil’s advocacy” and “dialectical inquiry” which encourage dissenting views.
    • While brainstorming can be effective for generating many ideas, it may not be suitable for all types of problems or for solving complex problems. Therefore, it’s important to evaluate and select which technique to use depending on the problem you’re trying to solve.

III. Techniques for Conducting Brainstorming

Nominal group technique

The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) is a structured method for group problem-solving and idea generation that involves individuals writing down their ideas independently before discussing and developing them as a group. Here are some advantages and disadvantages of NGT:

Advantages:

  • Encourages individual participation and equal participation among group members
  • Minimizes the influence of dominant group members and reduces social loafing
  • Helps to generate a large number of ideas
  • Encourages critical evaluation of ideas before they are discussed
  • Facilitates idea prioritization and decision-making

Disadvantages:

  • NGT can be time-consuming and may require a skilled facilitator
  • It may not be as effective for generating creative or innovative ideas
  • Individuals may feel less motivated or less invested in the ideas generated through NGT, since the ideas are generated independently
  • Some people may have difficulty expressing their ideas through written format, which may make some contribution less effective

Round-robin technique

  • Introduction:
    • The Round-robin technique is a brainstorming method that allows every member of the group to contribute their ideas in a structured, sequential manner.
    • This approach helps to ensure that everyone has an equal opportunity to contribute their ideas and reduces the influence of dominant group members.
  • Steps in the round-robin technique:
    • Define the problem or question: Clearly define the problem or question that the group will be brainstorming.
    • Introduce the round-robin technique: Explain the round-robin technique and how it works to the group.
    • Set a time limit: Set a time limit for each round of idea generation, usually around 2-3 minutes.
    • Start the round-robin: Start the round-robin with the first member of the group, who will have the opportunity to share one idea.
    • Move to the next member: After the first member has shared their idea, move on to the next member, who will also have the opportunity to share one idea.
    • Continue the round-robin: Continue the round-robin in a sequential manner until all members have had the opportunity to share their ideas.
    • Review and evaluate the ideas: After the round-robin is complete, review and evaluate the ideas generated, using specific criteria such as feasibility, practicality, impact, originality, testability, and alignment with overall research or project goals.
  • Advantages of round-robin technique:
    • Encourages equal participation: By giving each member of the group an equal opportunity to contribute their ideas, the round-robin technique helps to reduce the influence of dominant group members and encourages equal participation.
    • Avoids premature evaluation: By not allowing for discussion or evaluation of ideas during the idea generation phase, the round-robin technique helps to avoid premature evaluation of ideas.
    • Helps to generate a large number of ideas: The round-robin technique helps to generate a large number of ideas in a relatively short amount of time.
  • Disadvantages of Round-robin Technique:
    • Lack of discussion: The round-robin technique does not allow for discussion or elaboration of ideas during the idea generation phase, which can limit the depth and complexity of the ideas generated.
    • Limited creativity: The structured and sequential nature of the round-robin technique may limit the creativity and spontaneity of the ideas generated.
    • No room for impromptu ideas: Because the round-robin technique is structured and requires members to wait their turn, it does not allow for impromptu ideas that may arise during the brainstorming session.
    • May not be suitable for large groups: The round-robin technique may not be suitable for large groups as it can be time-consuming and may lead to some members not getting a chance to share their ideas.

Electronic Brainstorming

  • Introduction:
    • Electronic brainstorming refers to the use of technology, such as computers and the internet, to facilitate brainstorming sessions.
    • It allows for remote participation and enables the collection, organization, and sharing of ideas in real-time, making it a popular method in today’s digital age.
  • Steps in electronic brainstorming:
    • Define the problem or question: Clearly define the problem or question that the group will be brainstorming.
    • Select an electronic platform: Choose an electronic platform such as online meeting software, chat rooms, or forums that allows for real-time communication and idea sharing.
    • Set a time limit: Set a time limit for the brainstorming session, usually around 30-60 minutes.
    • Start the brainstorming session: Start the brainstorming session by introducing the problem or question and encouraging participants to share their ideas.
    • Use organization and voting tools: Use built-in organization and voting tools to collect, organize, and prioritize the ideas generated.
    • Review and evaluate the ideas: After the brainstorming session is complete, review and evaluate the ideas generated, using specific criteria such as feasibility, practicality, impact, originality, testability, and alignment with overall research or project goals.
  • Advantages of electronic brainstorming:
    • Allows for remote participation: Electronic brainstorming allows for remote participation, making it a useful method for groups that are geographically dispersed.
    • Enables real-time communication: Electronic brainstorming enables real-time communication and idea sharing, which can help to increase productivity and collaboration.
    • Facilitates organization and voting: Electronic brainstorming platforms often have built-in tools for organizing and voting on ideas, which can help to prioritize and evaluate the ideas generated.
    • Can be recorded and shared: Electronic brainstorming sessions can be recorded and shared with others, making it easy to share the ideas generated with a wider audience.
  • Disadvantages of electronic brainstorming:
    • Lack of face-to-face interaction: Electronic brainstorming sessions lack the face-to-face interaction of traditional brainstorming sessions, which can limit the ability to read nonverbal cues and build rapport among group members.
    • Technical difficulties: Electronic brainstorming sessions can be hindered by technical difficulties such as internet connectivity issues or software malfunctions.
    • Risk of social loafing: Electronic brainstorming sessions can increase the risk of social loafing, where individuals may be less motivated to contribute their ideas because of the anonymity provided by the online environment.
    • Lack of spontaneity: Electronic brainstorming sessions may lack the spontaneity of traditional brainstorming sessions, as participants may take more time to think and compose their ideas before sharing them online.
    • Limited to written communication: Electronic brainstorming is limited to written communication, which can be less efficient than verbal communication for some brainstorming topics.

Brainwriting

  • Introduction:
    • Brainwriting is a technique for generating ideas that involves writing down ideas on paper or on a computer, rather than verbally sharing them with a group.
    • It is a form of individual brainstorming and can be done either before or during a group brainstorming session.
  • Steps in Brainwriting:
    • Define the problem or question: Clearly define the problem or question that the group will be brainstorming.
    • Encourage individual idea generation: Encourage all members to take a few minutes to write down their ideas on paper or on a computer.
    • Collect the ideas: Collect the written ideas from all members and organize them into a list or chart.
    • Review and evaluate the ideas: After the brainwriting session is complete, review and evaluate the ideas generated, using specific criteria such as feasibility, practicality, impact, originality, testability, and alignment with overall research or project goals.
    • Share the ideas: Share the ideas generated during the brainwriting session with the group and discuss them further in a group brainstorming session.
  • Advantages of Brainwriting:
    • Encourages introverted members to participate: Brainwriting allows introverted members to participate more comfortably by allowing them to think and write down their ideas without the pressure of speaking in front of a group.
    • Increases the number of ideas generated: Brainwriting increases the number of ideas generated because it allows for simultaneous idea generation.
    • Avoids social loafing: Brainwriting helps to avoid social loafing, as individuals are responsible for generating their own ideas.
    • Avoids premature evaluation: Brainwriting avoids premature evaluation of ideas because ideas are generated and collected before they are discussed and evaluated by the group.
  • Disadvantages of Brainwriting:
    • Limited interaction: Brainwriting is limited interaction as it does not allow for discussion or elaboration of ideas during the idea generation phase.
    • Limited to written communication: Brainwriting is limited to written communication, which can be less efficient than verbal communication for some brainstorming topics.
    • Requires more time to organize and evaluate ideas: Brainwriting requires more time to organize and evaluate the ideas generated as they are written down individually, which can be time-consuming when compared to verbal sharing during a group brainstorming session.
    • Limited to the writing skills of members: Brainwriting is limited to the writing skills of members, which can be a disadvantage for individuals who struggle with written communication.

Mind Mapping

  • Introduction:
    • Mind mapping is a technique for organizing, visualizing and connecting ideas. It is a way of representing ideas graphically, by creating a map of key concepts, related ideas, and connections.
    • It can be used for a wide range of activities, such as brainstorming, problem-solving, note-taking, and project planning.
  • Steps in Mind Mapping:
    • Define the problem or question: Clearly define the problem or question that the group will be brainstorming.
    • Identify the central idea or theme: Identify the central idea or theme around which the mind map will be built.
    • Draw a central image or concept: Draw a central image or concept that represents the central idea or theme.
    • Add key concepts and related ideas: Add key concepts and related ideas that are connected to the central image or concept.
    • Connect the concepts: Connect the concepts and ideas visually by using lines, arrows, and symbols.
    • Use color, images and symbols: Use color, images, and symbols to enhance the visual representation and make it more memorable
    • Review and evaluate the mind map: After the mind mapping session is complete, review and evaluate the mind map, using specific criteria such as feasibility, practicality, impact, originality, testability, and alignment with overall research or project goals.
  • Advantages of Mind Mapping:
    • Encourages visual thinking: Mind mapping encourages visual thinking and helps to make connections between ideas that might not be apparent otherwise.
    • Enhances creativity and innovation: Mind mapping enhances creativity and innovation by providing a visual representation of ideas that can be used to generate new connections and possibilities.
    • Increases memory retention: Mind mapping increases memory retention by making the information more memorable and easier to recall.
    • Facilitates organization and planning: Mind mapping facilitates organization and planning by providing a visual representation of the structure and flow of information.
  • Disadvantages of Mind Mapping
    • Limited to visual learners: Mind mapping is best suited for visual learners and may not be as effective for individuals who learn best through other modalities.
    • Time-consuming: Mind mapping can be time-consuming, especially for complex or extensive projects.
    • Requires skill and practice: Mind mapping requires skill and practice to create effective and useful maps, which can be a disadvantage for beginners.
    • Limited to one central theme: Mind mapping is limited to one central theme and may not be as effective for brainstorming sessions that have multiple related topics or themes.
    • Limited to individuals with good drawing skills: Mind mapping relies heavily on visual representation, so it may not be suitable for individuals with poor drawing skills.

IV. Applications of Brainstorming in Psychological Research

Problem Solving in Groups

  • Introduction:
    • Brainstorming is a powerful tool for problem solving in groups.
    • It allows for the generation of a large number of ideas, encourages equal participation among group members, and facilitates idea prioritization and decision-making.
    • Researchers have studied the effectiveness of brainstorming in a variety of problem-solving contexts.
  • The Advantages of group problem solving:
    • Pooling of knowledge and expertise: Groups bring together individuals with different backgrounds and expertise, which can lead to a more diverse set of ideas and solutions.
    • Social support: Members of a group can provide emotional and psychological support to one another, which can increase motivation and commitment to the problem-solving task.
    • Different perspectives: Group members can provide different perspectives on a problem, which can lead to a more thorough exploration of possible solutions.
    • Greater creativity: Groups are often able to generate more creative solutions than individuals working alone.
  • The Challenges of group problem solving:
    • Social loafing: Some group members may not contribute as much to the problem-solving task.
    • Groupthink: Pressure to conform to the majority’s views can lead to poor decision making.
    • Coordination and communication difficulties: Groups may have trouble coordinating their efforts and communicating effectively.
  • Techniques for effective problem solving in groups:
    • Brainstorming techniques: As discussed earlier, techniques like nominal group technique, round-robin technique, electronic brainstorming and brainwriting can be used to generate ideas effectively.
    • Structured problem-solving methods: Methods like the Six Thinking Hats method, and the 8D problem-solving process can be used to provide a structured framework for group problem-solving.
    • Creativity techniques: Techniques such as SCAMPER and lateral thinking can be used to foster creativity and generate innovative solutions.

Idea Generation in Psychological Research

  • Introduction:
    • Idea generation is an essential step in the research process.
    • It is the process of developing new research questions, hypotheses, or experimental designs.
    • Brainstorming is a useful tool for idea generation, as it allows researchers to generate a large number of ideas in a relatively short amount of time.
  • Advantages of group idea generation:
    • Diverse perspectives: Group brainstorming can bring together researchers with different backgrounds, training and expertise, which can lead to a more diverse set of ideas and research questions.
    • Greater creativity: Groups are often able to generate more creative ideas than individuals working alone.
    • Shared ownership: When a group generates an idea together, all members can feel a sense of ownership over the idea and may be more invested in pursuing it.
  • Challenges of group idea generation:
    • Social loafing: Some group members may not contribute as much to the idea generation task.
    • Groupthink: Pressure to conform to the majority’s views can lead to poor decision making.
    • Coordination and communication difficulties: Groups may have trouble coordinating their efforts and communicating effectively.
  • Techniques for effective idea generation in research:
    • Brainstorming techniques: Techniques like nominal group technique, round-robin technique, electronic brainstorming and brainwriting can be used to generate ideas effectively.
    • Creative thinking techniques: Techniques such as SCAMPER, and lateral thinking can be used to foster creativity and generate innovative research questions and hypotheses.
    • Literature review: A comprehensive review of relevant literature can be useful to identify gaps in research and new areas for study.

Creative Thinking in Psychological Research

  • Introduction:
    • Creative thinking is an essential aspect of psychological research.
    • It allows researchers to generate new and innovative ideas, hypotheses, and research designs that can lead to new discoveries and insights.
    • Various techniques and methods can be used to foster creative thinking in psychological research.
  • Key aspects of creative thinking in psychological research:
    • Generating novel and original ideas: Creative thinking allows researchers to generate new and original ideas that can lead to new discoveries and insights.
    • Flexibility and adaptability: Creative thinking involves being flexible and adaptable in the face of new information and unexpected obstacles.
    • Open-mindedness: Creative thinking requires an open-minded approach that is willing to explore new possibilities and consider different perspectives.
  • Techniques for fostering creative thinking in psychological research:
    • Brainstorming: Techniques like nominal group technique, round-robin technique, electronic brainstorming and brainwriting can be used to generate ideas effectively.
    • Creative thinking techniques: Techniques such as SCAMPER, lateral thinking and Six Thinking Hats can be used to foster creativity and generate innovative research questions and hypotheses.
    • Mind mapping: Mind mapping can be used to visually organize and connect ideas.
    • Incubation: Incubation is the process of letting an idea “sit” and develop over time, can be useful for generating new insights and perspectives.
  • Here are some challenges of creative thinking in psychological research:
    • Limited Resources: Limited resources such as funding, time, and expertise can constrain the ability of researchers to explore new and innovative ideas.
    • Limited Perspective: Researchers may be too close to their research questions, hypotheses, or experimental designs, which can limit their ability to see new possibilities and perspectives.
    • Constraints of Theories: Researchers may be limited by existing theories and models, which can constrain their ability to explore new and innovative ideas.
    • Fear of Failure: Researchers may be hesitant to explore new and innovative ideas for fear of failure or criticism, which can limit their ability to think creatively.
    • Cognitive Biases: Cognitive biases such as confirmation bias, sunk cost fallacy and groupthink may lead to certain ideas and possibilities being ignored and limited researchers to look only at certain sides of problem.
    • Resistance to change: Some researchers may be resistant to change, which can hinder the implementation of new and innovative ideas.
    • Time pressure: The pressure of meeting deadlines or publishing can lead to researchers choosing to stick to familiar and tested strategies, instead of trying new approaches
    • Burnout: Constantly being creative can be emotionally and mentally draining, leading to the researcher feeling exhausted and not able to think creatively.

V. Evaluating and Implementing Brainstorming Ideas

Criteria for Evaluating Ideas Generated through Brainstorming

  • Introduction:
    • Brainstorming is a powerful tool for generating new ideas, but it is important to evaluate the ideas generated to determine their feasibility, practicality, and impact.
    • Establishing clear evaluation criteria can help to ensure that the best ideas are selected for further exploration and development.
  • Criteria for evaluating ideas:
    • Feasibility: Can the idea be realistically implemented given the available resources, budget, and time constraints?
    • Practicality: Is the idea practical and useful in solving the problem or achieving the goal?
    • Impact: What impact would the idea have on the problem or goal?
    • Originality: Is the idea original and unique, or is it a variation on existing ideas?
    • Testability: Is the idea testable, measurable, and falsifiable?
    • Align with goals: Is the idea align with overall research or project goals?
  • Evaluation process:
    • Identify the criteria: Clearly define the evaluation criteria to be used to evaluate the ideas generated during brainstorming.
    • Assign scores or rankings: Assign scores or rankings to the ideas based on how well they meet the established evaluation criteria.
    • Discuss and finalize: Discuss the results of the evaluation process with the group and finalize the ideas that will be further explored and developed.
    • Reflect on the process: Reflect on the evaluation process and consider how it could be improved in future brainstorming sessions.

Implementing Brainstorming Ideas into a Research Study

  • Introduction:
    • Brainstorming is a powerful tool for generating new ideas and solving problems in psychological research.
    • However, it is important to have a plan in place to implement the ideas generated through brainstorming into a research study.
  • Steps for implementing brainstorming ideas into a research study:
    • Idea selection: Select the most promising ideas generated through brainstorming that align with the research goals and objectives.
    • Idea development: Develop the selected ideas further by gathering more information, conducting literature reviews, and testing the feasibility of the ideas.
    • Research design: Create a research design that incorporates the selected ideas and addresses any potential challenges or limitations.
    • Data collection: Collect data according to the research design and analyze it to test the hypotheses or answer the research questions.
    • Reporting and dissemination: Report and disseminate the findings from the study in a way that is accessible and understandable to the intended audience.

VI. Best practices and Pitfalls in Brainstorming

Fostering a Positive and Productive Brainstorming Environment

  • Introduction:
    • Brainstorming is a powerful tool for generating new ideas and solving problems, but it can be ineffective if the environment is not conducive to creativity and productivity.
    • Creating a positive and productive brainstorming environment is crucial for the success of the brainstorming process.
  • Steps to foster a positive and productive brainstorming environment:
    • Encourage participation: Encourage all members to participate in the brainstorming process and to share their ideas freely and without fear of criticism.
    • Create a safe and comfortable environment: Create an environment that is safe, comfortable and free from distractions, where participants can focus on the task at hand.
    • Encourage diverse perspectives: Encourage participants to share different perspectives and to consider ideas from different angles.
    • Set clear goals and expectations: Clearly define the goals and expectations of the brainstorming session to ensure that everyone is on the same page.
    • Respect and support: Respect and support the ideas and contributions of all participants, even if they are not immediately useful.
    • Encourage positive feedback: Encourage positive feedback and constructive criticism to help improve the ideas generated during the brainstorming process.
    • Schedule breaks: Schedule regular breaks to avoid mental fatigue and help maintain focus and productivity.

Common Mistakes and Pitfalls to Avoid in Brainstorming

  • Introduction:
    • Brainstorming is a powerful tool for generating new ideas, but it can also be hindered by common mistakes and pitfalls.
    • Being aware of these common mistakes and pitfalls can help to ensure that brainstorming sessions are effective and productive.
  • Common mistakes and pitfalls to avoid in brainstorming:
    • Not setting clear goals and objectives: Not having a clear understanding of the goals and objectives of the brainstorming session can lead to confusion and lack of direction.
    • Not encouraging participation: Not encouraging all members to participate in the brainstorming process can lead to a lack of ideas and limited perspectives.
    • Not respecting and supporting ideas: Not respecting and supporting the ideas and contributions of all members can lead to frustration and a lack of motivation.
    • Not allowing for free flow of ideas: Not allowing for a free flow of ideas and prematurely evaluating or judging ideas can stifle creativity and limit the number of ideas generated.
    • Not encouraging diverse perspectives: Not encouraging diverse perspectives can lead to a lack of innovative and original ideas.
    • Not providing positive feedback: Not providing positive feedback and constructive criticism can lead to a lack of motivation and engagement.
    • Not scheduling breaks: Not scheduling regular breaks can lead to mental fatigue and a loss of focus and productivity.

Tools and Strategies to Avoid Groupthink and Premature Evaluation of Ideas

  • Introduction:
    • Groupthink and premature evaluation of ideas are common pitfalls that can hinder the effectiveness of brainstorming sessions.
    • Tools and strategies can be used to avoid these pitfalls and ensure that brainstorming sessions are productive and effective.
  • Tools and strategies to avoid groupthink:
    • Encourage dissenting opinions: Encourage all members to share dissenting opinions and to challenge the ideas and assumptions of the group.
    • Use anonymous idea generation: Use anonymous idea generation techniques such as round-robin brainstorming, where each member writes down their ideas without sharing them with the group, to reduce the influence of group pressure.
    • Use devil’s advocate approach: Use the devil’s advocate approach, where one member is assigned to play the role of opposing the group’s ideas, to challenge the assumptions of the group.
    • Encourage outside perspectives: Encourage outside perspectives by inviting experts or stakeholders from outside the group to participate in brainstorming sessions.
  • Tools and strategies to avoid premature evaluation of ideas:
    • Encourage freewheeling discussion: Encourage freewheeling discussion where ideas are generated without evaluation or judgement.
    • Use idea generation techniques: Use idea generation techniques such as brainwriting, where members write down their ideas on paper, to reduce the influence of group pressure and premature evaluation.
    • Evaluate ideas after the brainstorming session: Evaluate the ideas generated during the brainstorming session after the session is complete and not during it.
    • Use criteria for evaluating ideas: Use clear criteria for evaluating ideas such as feasibility, practicality, impact, originality, testability, and alignment with overall research or project goals to ensure that ideas are evaluated objectively and fairly.

VII. Future Directions for Brainstorming Research

  • Investigating the effectiveness of different brainstorming techniques: Research can be conducted to compare the effectiveness of different brainstorming techniques such as nominal group technique, round-robin technique, electronic brainstorming, and brainwriting.
  • Examining the effects of group size and composition: Research can be conducted to examine the effects of group size and composition on the effectiveness of brainstorming.
  • Exploring the use of technology in brainstorming: Research can be conducted to explore the use of technology such as virtual reality and online platforms to enhance brainstorming sessions.
  • Investigating the impact of diversity and inclusion on brainstorming: Research can be conducted to examine the impact of diversity and inclusion on brainstorming and how it can be used to generate more innovative and inclusive ideas.
  • Examining the use of brainstorming in different contexts: Research can be conducted to explore the use of brainstorming in different contexts such as business, education, and healthcare.
  • Study of individual brainstorming: Research can be conducted to investigate how brainstorming can be done individually, and how it can be beneficial in certain situations.
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