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Psychology (Optional) Notes & Mind Maps

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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Definition of Psychology
  2. 1.2 Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century
  3. 1.3 Psychology and scientific methods
  4. 1.4 Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences
  5. 1.5 Application of Psychology to societal problems
  6. 2. METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
    2.1 Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic, and prognostic
  7. 2.2 Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study, and experiments
  8. 2.3 Experimental, Non-Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs
  9. 2.4 Focused group discussions
  10. 2.5 Brainstorming
  11. 2.6 Grounded theory approach
  12. 3. RESEARCH METHODS
    3.1 Major Steps in Psychological research
    6 Submodules
  13. 3.2 Fundamental versus applied research
  14. 3.3 Methods of Data Collection
    3 Submodules
  15. 3.4 Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental)
  16. 3.5 Application of Statistical Technique
    5 Submodules
  17. 3.6 Item Response Theory
  18. 4. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
    4.1 Growth and Development, Principles of Development
  19. 4.2 Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behavior
  20. 4.3 Influence of cultural factors in socialization
  21. 4.4 Life span development (Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span)
  22. 5. SENSATION, ATTENTION, AND PERCEPTION
    5.1 Sensation
    2 Submodules
  23. 5.2 Attention: factors influencing attention
    1 Submodule
  24. 5.3 Perception
    11 Submodules
  25. 6. LEARNING
    6.1 Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models)
  26. 6.2 The Processes of extinction, discrimination, and generalization
  27. 6.3 Programmed learning
  28. 6.4 Probability Learning
  29. 6.5 Self-Instructional Learning
  30. 6.6 Types and the schedules of reinforcement
  31. 6.7 Escape, Avoidance and Punishment
  32. 6.8 Modeling
  33. 6.9 Social Learning
  34. 7. MEMORY
    7.1 Encoding and Remembering
  35. 7.2 Short term memory
  36. 7.3 Long term memory
  37. 7.4 Sensory Memory - Iconic, Echoic & Haptic Memory
  38. 7.5 Multistore Model of Memory
  39. 7.6 Levels of Processing
  40. 7.7 Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory
  41. 7.8 Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure
  42. 7.9 Metamemory
  43. 8. THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING
    8.1 Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
  44. 8.2 Concept formation processes
  45. 8.3 Information Processing
  46. 8.4 Reasoning and problem-solving
  47. 8.5 Facilitating and hindering factors in problem-solving
  48. 8.6 Methods of problem-solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity
  49. 8.7 Factors influencing decision making and judgment
  50. 8.8 Recent Trends in Thinking and Problem Solving
  51. 9. Motivation and Emotion
    9.1 Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion
  52. 9.2 Measurement of motivation and emotion
  53. 9.3 Effects of motivation and emotion on behavior
  54. 9.4 Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
  55. 9.5 Factors influencing intrinsic motivation
  56. 9.6 Emotional competence and the related issues
  57. 10. Intelligence and Aptitude
    10.1 Concept of intelligence and aptitude
  58. 10.2 Nature and theories of intelligence: Spearman, Thurstone, Guilford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P Das
  59. 10.3 Emotional Intelligence
  60. 10.4 Social Intelligence
  61. 10.5 Measurement of intelligence and aptitudes
  62. 10.6 Concept of IQ
  63. 10.7 Deviation IQ
  64. 10.8 The constancy of IQ
  65. 10.9 Measurement of multiple intelligence
  66. 10.10 Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
  67. 11. Personality
    11.1 Definition and concept of personality
  68. 11.2 Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches)
  69. 11.3 Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test)
  70. 11.4 The Indian approach to personality
  71. 11.5 Training for personality development
  72. 11.6 Latest approaches like big 5-factor theory
  73. 11.7 The notion of self in different traditions
  74. 12. Attitudes, Values, and Interests
    12.1 Definition of attitudes, values, and interests
  75. 12.2 Components of attitudes
  76. 12.3 Formation and maintenance of attitudes
  77. 12.4 Measurement of attitudes, values, and interests
  78. 12.5 Theories of attitude change
  79. 12.6 Strategies for fostering values
  80. 12.7 Formation of stereotypes and prejudices
  81. 12.8 Changing others behavior
  82. 12.9 Theories of attribution
  83. 12.10 Recent trends in Attitudes, Values and Interests
  84. 13. Language and Communication
    13.1 Properties of Human Language
  85. 13.2 Structure of language and linguistic hierarchy
  86. 13.3 Language acquisition: Predisposition & critical period hypothesis
  87. 13.4 Theories of language development: Skinner and Chomsky
  88. 13.5 Process and types of communication – effective communication training
  89. 14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology
    14.1 Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing
  90. 14.2 Artificial Intelligence and Psychology
  91. 14.3 Psychocybernetics
  92. 14.4 Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules
  93. 14.5 Dreams
  94. 14.6 Stimulus deprivation
  95. 14.7 Meditation
  96. 14.8 Hypnotic/drug-induced states
  97. 14.9 Extrasensory perception
  98. 14.10 Intersensory perception & simulation studies
  99. 15. Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences
    15.1 The nature of individual differences
  100. 15.2 Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests
  101. 15.3 Types of psychological tests
  102. 15.4 Use, misuse, limitation & ethical issues of psychological tests
  103. 15.5 Concept of health-ill health
  104. 15.6 Positive health & well being
  105. 15.7 Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders)
  106. 15.8 Factors influencing positive health, well being, lifestyle and quality of life
  107. 15.9 Happiness Disposition
  108. 16. Therapeutic Approaches
    16.1 Introduction: Overview of Therapeutic Approaches and Their Importance in Mental Health
  109. 16.2 Psychodynamic therapies
  110. 16.3 Behavior Therapies
  111. 16.4 Client centered therapy
  112. 16.5 Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation)
  113. 16.6 Fostering mental health
  114. 17. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour
    17.1 Personnel selection and training
  115. 17.2 Use of psychological tests in the industry
  116. 17.3 Training and human resource development
  117. 17.4 Theories of work motivation – Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom
  118. 17.5 Advertising and marketing
  119. 17.6 Stress and its management
  120. 17.7 Ergonomics
  121. 17.8 Consumer Psychology
  122. 17.9 Managerial effectiveness
  123. 17.10 Transformational leadership
  124. 17.11 Sensitivity training
  125. 17.12 Power and politics in organizations
  126. 18. Application of Psychology to Educational Field
    18.1 Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process
  127. 18.2 Learning Styles
  128. 18.3 Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training
  129. 18.4 Training for improving memory and better academic achievement
  130. 18.5 Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and career counseling
  131. 18.6 Use of psychological tests in educational institutions
  132. 18.7 Effective strategies in guidance programs
  133. 19. Community Psychology
    19.1 Definition and concept of community psychology
  134. 19.2 Use of small groups in social action
  135. 19.3 Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems
  136. 19.4 Group decision making and leadership for social change
  137. 19.5 Effective strategies for social change
  138. 20. Rehabilitation Psychology
    20.1 Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programs-role of psychologists
  139. 20.2 Organising of services for the rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons
  140. 20.3 Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behavior
  141. 20.4 Rehabilitation of victims of violence
  142. 20.5 Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims
  143. 20.6 The role of social agencies
  144. 21. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups
    21.1 The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation
  145. 21.2 Social, physical, cultural, and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups
  146. 21.3 Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development
  147. 21.4 Relative and prolonged deprivation
  148. 22. Psychological problems of social integration
    22.1 The concept of social integration
  149. 22.2 The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice
  150. 22.3 Nature and the manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group
  151. 22.4 Causal factors of social conflicts and prejudices
  152. 22.5 Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices
  153. 22.6 Measures to achieve social integration
  154. 23. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media
    23.1 The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists
  155. 23.2 Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media
  156. 23.3 Distance learning through IT and mass media
  157. 23.4 Entrepreneurship through e-commerce
  158. 23.5 Multilevel marketing
  159. 23.6 Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media
  160. 23.7 Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology
  161. 24. Psychology and Economic development
    24.1 Achievement motivation and economic development
  162. 24.2 Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior
  163. 24.3 Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development
  164. 24.4 Consumer rights and consumer awareness
  165. 24.5 Government policies for the promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entrepreneurs
  166. 25. Application of psychology to environment and related fields
    25.1 Environmental psychology- effects of noise, pollution, and crowding
  167. 25.2 Population psychology: psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density
  168. 25.3 Motivating for small family norm
  169. 25.4 Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of the environment
  170. 26. Application of psychology in other fields
    26.1 [Military Psychology] Devising psychological tests for defense personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling
  171. 26.2 [Military Psychology] Training psychologists to work with defense personnel in promoting positive health
  172. 26.3 [Military Psychology] Human engineering in defense
  173. 26.4 Sports Psychology
  174. 26.5 Media influences on pro and antisocial behavior
  175. 26.6 Psychology of Terrorism
  176. 27. Psychology of Gender
    27.1 Issues of discrimination
  177. 27.2 Management of Diversity
  178. 27.3 Glass ceiling effect
  179. 27.4 Self-fulfilling prophesy
  180. 27.5 Women and Indian society
Module 38 of 180
In Progress

7.5 Multistore Model of Memory

Definition

  • The Multistore Model of Memory is a cognitive model proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968.
    • Based on the idea that memory is composed of three main components:
      1. Sensory Memory
      2. Short-term Memory
      3. Long-term Memory
    • Information flows through these components in a linear manner.
  • Sensory Memory
    • Briefly holds incoming sensory information.
    • Different sensory modalities have their own sensory registers.
    • Information is rapidly decayed unless attended to.
  • Short-term Memory
    • Holds a limited amount of information for a short period of time (15-30 seconds).
    • Capacity limit is 7 ± 2 chunks of information.
    • Information can be rehearsed to maintain it in memory.
  • Long-term Memory
    • Holds an unlimited amount of information for an indefinite period of time.
    • Information can be retrieved and brought into short-term memory when needed.
    • Includes two types of memory:
      1. Semantic Memory: memory for facts and concepts
      2. Episodic Memory: memory for personal experiences.

Historical background and theoretical foundations

  • Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)
    • Proposed the Multistore Model of Memory
    • Based on computer processing analogy
  • Information processing approach
    • Compare human mind to a computer
    • Emphasize the role of encoding, storage, and retrieval processes in memory
  • Structuralist psychology
    • Influenced the Multistore Model
    • Emphasized the importance of breaking down complex phenomena into simpler parts
  • Behaviorist psychology
    • Emphasized the role of reinforcement and conditioning in learning and memory
    • Had limited influence on the Multistore Model
  • Cognitive psychology
    • Emerged as a dominant paradigm in the 1970s
    • Emphasized the role of mental processes in information processing
    • Provided support for the Multistore Model through empirical research
  • Later modifications and critiques of the Multistore Model
    • Working memory model
    • Levels of processing model
    • Critiques of capacity limitations and the role of attention in memory processes.

Advantages

  • Simple and Intuitive
    • The model is easy to understand and has a clear structure.
    • It provides a straightforward explanation for how information is processed and stored in memory.
  • Supported by Research
    • The model has received empirical support from a variety of studies, including studies on primacy and recency effects, capacity limitations of short-term memory, and serial position effects.
  • Basis for Further Research
    • The model has served as a foundation for further research on memory processes, including the development of alternative models such as the Working Memory Model and the Levels of Processing Model.
  • Clinical Applications
    • The model has important clinical implications, as it can help explain memory deficits in conditions such as amnesia and Alzheimer’s disease.

Critiques and Extensions of the Multistore Model

Alternative Models of Memory and Their Implications for the Multistore Model

  • The Multistore Model of Memory has been subject to critiques and modifications over the years.
  • Alternative models of memory have been proposed that challenge the assumptions of the Multistore Model.
    • Working Memory Model
    • Levels of Processing Model
  • Working Memory Model
    • Proposed by Baddeley and Hitch in 1974.
    • Consists of multiple components that work together to support complex cognitive tasks:
      1. Central Executive
      2. Phonological Loop
      3. Visuospatial Sketchpad
      4. Episodic Buffer
    • Emphasizes the active processing and manipulation of information, rather than passive storage.
  • Levels of Processing Model
    • Proposed by Craik and Lockhart in 1972.
    • Emphasizes the depth of processing as a determinant of memory.
    • Memory is thought to be a function of the level of processing that occurs during encoding, rather than a function of a fixed memory store.
    • Shallow processing (e.g. physical characteristics of a word) leads to poorer memory, while deep processing (e.g. meaning of a word) leads to better memory.
  • Implications for the Multistore Model
    • Working Memory Model challenges the concept of a unitary short-term memory store, and emphasizes the importance of active processing and manipulation of information.
    • Levels of Processing Model challenges the assumption of fixed memory stores, and emphasizes the role of depth of processing in memory.

Limitations and critiques of the model, including the role of attention and motivation in memory processes

  • While the Multistore Model has been influential in the field of memory research, it has also been subject to a number of critiques and limitations.
  • Capacity Limitations
    • The capacity of short-term memory is limited to 7 ± 2 chunks of information.
    • However, the concept of a fixed capacity limit has been challenged by research suggesting that capacity can vary based on factors such as chunking and individual differences.
  • Role of Attention
    • The Multistore Model does not explicitly account for the role of attention in memory processes.
    • However, research has shown that attention plays a crucial role in determining what information is processed and stored in memory.
  • Motivation and Emotion
    • The Multistore Model does not account for the role of motivation and emotion in memory processes.
    • However, research has shown that motivation and emotion can have a significant impact on encoding, storage, and retrieval of information in memory.
  • Rehearsal as the Primary Mechanism for Information Transfer
    • The Multistore Model places a heavy emphasis on rehearsal as the primary mechanism for transferring information from short-term memory to long-term memory.
    • However, research has suggested that other factors, such as meaningfulness and organization of information, can also play a role in the transfer of information to long-term memory.
  • Serial Position Effects
    • The Multistore Model predicts that recall performance should be influenced by the position of an item in a list.
    • However, research has shown that both primacy (recall of items at the beginning of a list) and recency (recall of items at the end of a list) effects can occur, suggesting that the model may be oversimplified.

Extensions and modifications of the model, including the working memory model and the levels of processing model

  • The Multistore Model has been extended and modified in a number of ways:
  • Working Memory Model
    • The Working Memory Model proposes a more complex and dynamic model of short-term memory.
    • It includes a central executive that coordinates the activities of two slave systems, the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad.
    • The model emphasizes the active processing of information in short-term memory, rather than just storage.
  • Levels of Processing Model
    • The Levels of Processing Model proposes that memory is not a static process, but rather a dynamic one that involves continuous processing of information.
    • It emphasizes that the depth of processing of information, rather than the duration or repetition of exposure, is the most important factor in determining whether information is retained in memory.
    • The model includes three levels of processing: shallow, intermediate, and deep.
  • Episodic Buffer
    • The Episodic Buffer is an extension of the Working Memory Model that integrates information from multiple sources into a single representation.
    • It serves as a temporary store that integrates information from the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, and long-term memory.

Applications

  • In Understanding Cognitive Development and Aging
    • Memory Development
      • The model has helped explain changes in memory capacity and function across the lifespan, such as the development of working memory capacity in childhood and declines in episodic memory in older adulthood.
    • Age-related Changes in Memory
      • The model has been used to investigate age-related changes in memory processes, such as declines in processing speed and attentional control, which can affect encoding, storage, and retrieval processes.
    • Interventions for Memory Improvement
      • The model has been applied in the development of interventions for memory improvement, such as mnemonic strategies and cognitive training programs, that target specific memory processes in order to enhance memory performance in both young and older adults.
  • Education
    • The model has been used to develop instructional strategies that optimize learning and memory, such as chunking and elaboration techniques that facilitate encoding and retrieval of information.
  • Eyewitness Testimony
    • The model has been used to inform investigations of eyewitness testimony, by helping to identify factors that can affect the accuracy and reliability of eyewitness memory, such as the effects of stress, leading questions, and post-event information.
  • Memory Disorders
    • The model has been used to understand and treat memory disorders, such as amnesia and dementia, by identifying the specific memory processes that are affected and developing interventions that target these processes, such as memory rehabilitation programs that focus on improving encoding, storage, and retrieval processes.
  • Implications of the Multistore Model for Designing Effective Memory Interventions and Technologies
    • Memory Strategies
      • The model suggests that specific memory strategies, such as elaboration and rehearsal, can enhance encoding, storage, and retrieval processes, and can be used to improve memory performance across the lifespan.
    • Cognitive Training
      • The model suggests that cognitive training programs that target specific memory processes, such as working memory or attentional control, can lead to improvements in memory performance in both young and older adults.
    • Technology-Based Interventions
      • The model suggests that technology-based interventions, such as computerized cognitive training programs and virtual reality-based memory rehabilitation, can provide targeted and adaptive training that can improve memory performance.
    • Personalized Interventions
      • The model suggests that personalized memory interventions that take into account individual differences in memory processes, such as the use of individualized memory profiles or cognitive assessments, can lead to more effective and efficient memory training.

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