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Psychology (Optional) Notes & Mind Maps

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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Definition of Psychology
  2. 1.2 Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century
  3. 1.3 Psychology and scientific methods
  4. 1.4 Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences
  5. 1.5 Application of Psychology to societal problems
  6. 2. METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
    2.1 Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic, and prognostic
  7. 2.2 Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study, and experiments
  8. 2.3 Experimental, Non-Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs
  9. 2.4 Focused group discussions
  10. 2.5 Brainstorming
  11. 2.6 Grounded theory approach
  12. 3. RESEARCH METHODS
    3.1 Major Steps in Psychological research
    6 Submodules
  13. 3.2 Fundamental versus applied research
  14. 3.3 Methods of Data Collection
    3 Submodules
  15. 3.4 Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental)
  16. 3.5 Application of Statistical Technique
    5 Submodules
  17. 3.6 Item Response Theory
  18. 4. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
    4.1 Growth and Development, Principles of Development
  19. 4.2 Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behavior
  20. 4.3 Influence of cultural factors in socialization
  21. 4.4 Life span development (Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span)
  22. 5. SENSATION, ATTENTION, AND PERCEPTION
    5.1 Sensation
    2 Submodules
  23. 5.2 Attention: factors influencing attention
    1 Submodule
  24. 5.3 Perception
    11 Submodules
  25. 6. LEARNING
    6.1 Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models)
  26. 6.2 The Processes of extinction, discrimination, and generalization
  27. 6.3 Programmed learning
  28. 6.4 Probability Learning
  29. 6.5 Self-Instructional Learning
  30. 6.6 Types and the schedules of reinforcement
  31. 6.7 Escape, Avoidance and Punishment
  32. 6.8 Modeling
  33. 6.9 Social Learning
  34. 7. MEMORY
    7.1 Encoding and Remembering
  35. 7.2 Short term memory
  36. 7.3 Long term memory
  37. 7.4 Sensory Memory - Iconic, Echoic & Haptic Memory
  38. 7.5 Multistore Model of Memory
  39. 7.6 Levels of Processing
  40. 7.7 Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory
  41. 7.8 Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure
  42. 7.9 Metamemory
  43. 8. THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING
    8.1 Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
  44. 8.2 Concept formation processes
  45. 8.3 Information Processing
  46. 8.4 Reasoning and problem-solving
  47. 8.5 Facilitating and hindering factors in problem-solving
  48. 8.6 Methods of problem-solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity
  49. 8.7 Factors influencing decision making and judgment
  50. 8.8 Recent Trends in Thinking and Problem Solving
  51. 9. Motivation and Emotion
    9.1 Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion
  52. 9.2 Measurement of motivation and emotion
  53. 9.3 Effects of motivation and emotion on behavior
  54. 9.4 Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
  55. 9.5 Factors influencing intrinsic motivation
  56. 9.6 Emotional competence and the related issues
  57. 10. Intelligence and Aptitude
    10.1 Concept of intelligence and aptitude
  58. 10.2 Nature and theories of intelligence: Spearman, Thurstone, Guilford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P Das
  59. 10.3 Emotional Intelligence
  60. 10.4 Social Intelligence
  61. 10.5 Measurement of intelligence and aptitudes
  62. 10.6 Concept of IQ
  63. 10.7 Deviation IQ
  64. 10.8 The constancy of IQ
  65. 10.9 Measurement of multiple intelligence
  66. 10.10 Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
  67. 11. Personality
    11.1 Definition and concept of personality
  68. 11.2 Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches)
  69. 11.3 Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test)
  70. 11.4 The Indian approach to personality
  71. 11.5 Training for personality development
  72. 11.6 Latest approaches like big 5-factor theory
  73. 11.7 The notion of self in different traditions
  74. 12. Attitudes, Values, and Interests
    12.1 Definition of attitudes, values, and interests
  75. 12.2 Components of attitudes
  76. 12.3 Formation and maintenance of attitudes
  77. 12.4 Measurement of attitudes, values, and interests
  78. 12.5 Theories of attitude change
  79. 12.6 Strategies for fostering values
  80. 12.7 Formation of stereotypes and prejudices
  81. 12.8 Changing others behavior
  82. 12.9 Theories of attribution
  83. 12.10 Recent trends in Attitudes, Values and Interests
  84. 13. Language and Communication
    13.1 Properties of Human Language
  85. 13.2 Structure of language and linguistic hierarchy
  86. 13.3 Language acquisition: Predisposition & critical period hypothesis
  87. 13.4 Theories of language development: Skinner and Chomsky
  88. 13.5 Process and types of communication – effective communication training
  89. 14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology
    14.1 Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing
  90. 14.2 Artificial Intelligence and Psychology
  91. 14.3 Psychocybernetics
  92. 14.4 Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules
  93. 14.5 Dreams
  94. 14.6 Stimulus deprivation
  95. 14.7 Meditation
  96. 14.8 Hypnotic/drug-induced states
  97. 14.9 Extrasensory perception
  98. 14.10 Intersensory perception & simulation studies
  99. 15. Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences
    15.1 The nature of individual differences
  100. 15.2 Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests
  101. 15.3 Types of psychological tests
  102. 15.4 Use, misuse, limitation & ethical issues of psychological tests
  103. 15.5 Concept of health-ill health
  104. 15.6 Positive health & well being
  105. 15.7 Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders)
  106. 15.8 Factors influencing positive health, well being, lifestyle and quality of life
  107. 15.9 Happiness Disposition
  108. 16. Therapeutic Approaches
    16.1 Introduction: Overview of Therapeutic Approaches and Their Importance in Mental Health
  109. 16.2 Psychodynamic therapies
  110. 16.3 Behavior Therapies
  111. 16.4 Client centered therapy
  112. 16.5 Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation)
  113. 16.6 Fostering mental health
  114. 17. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour
    17.1 Personnel selection and training
  115. 17.2 Use of psychological tests in the industry
  116. 17.3 Training and human resource development
  117. 17.4 Theories of work motivation – Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom
  118. 17.5 Advertising and marketing
  119. 17.6 Stress and its management
  120. 17.7 Ergonomics
  121. 17.8 Consumer Psychology
  122. 17.9 Managerial effectiveness
  123. 17.10 Transformational leadership
  124. 17.11 Sensitivity training
  125. 17.12 Power and politics in organizations
  126. 18. Application of Psychology to Educational Field
    18.1 Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process
  127. 18.2 Learning Styles
  128. 18.3 Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training
  129. 18.4 Training for improving memory and better academic achievement
  130. 18.5 Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and career counseling
  131. 18.6 Use of psychological tests in educational institutions
  132. 18.7 Effective strategies in guidance programs
  133. 19. Community Psychology
    19.1 Definition and concept of community psychology
  134. 19.2 Use of small groups in social action
  135. 19.3 Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems
  136. 19.4 Group decision making and leadership for social change
  137. 19.5 Effective strategies for social change
  138. 20. Rehabilitation Psychology
    20.1 Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programs-role of psychologists
  139. 20.2 Organising of services for the rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons
  140. 20.3 Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behavior
  141. 20.4 Rehabilitation of victims of violence
  142. 20.5 Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims
  143. 20.6 The role of social agencies
  144. 21. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups
    21.1 The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation
  145. 21.2 Social, physical, cultural, and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups
  146. 21.3 Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development
  147. 21.4 Relative and prolonged deprivation
  148. 22. Psychological problems of social integration
    22.1 The concept of social integration
  149. 22.2 The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice
  150. 22.3 Nature and the manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group
  151. 22.4 Causal factors of social conflicts and prejudices
  152. 22.5 Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices
  153. 22.6 Measures to achieve social integration
  154. 23. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media
    23.1 The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists
  155. 23.2 Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media
  156. 23.3 Distance learning through IT and mass media
  157. 23.4 Entrepreneurship through e-commerce
  158. 23.5 Multilevel marketing
  159. 23.6 Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media
  160. 23.7 Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology
  161. 24. Psychology and Economic development
    24.1 Achievement motivation and economic development
  162. 24.2 Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior
  163. 24.3 Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development
  164. 24.4 Consumer rights and consumer awareness
  165. 24.5 Government policies for the promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entrepreneurs
  166. 25. Application of psychology to environment and related fields
    25.1 Environmental psychology- effects of noise, pollution, and crowding
  167. 25.2 Population psychology: psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density
  168. 25.3 Motivating for small family norm
  169. 25.4 Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of the environment
  170. 26. Application of psychology in other fields
    26.1 [Military Psychology] Devising psychological tests for defense personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling
  171. 26.2 [Military Psychology] Training psychologists to work with defense personnel in promoting positive health
  172. 26.3 [Military Psychology] Human engineering in defense
  173. 26.4 Sports Psychology
  174. 26.5 Media influences on pro and antisocial behavior
  175. 26.6 Psychology of Terrorism
  176. 27. Psychology of Gender
    27.1 Issues of discrimination
  177. 27.2 Management of Diversity
  178. 27.3 Glass ceiling effect
  179. 27.4 Self-fulfilling prophesy
  180. 27.5 Women and Indian society
Module 45 of 180
In Progress

8.3 Information Processing

I. Introduction

A. Definition of information processing

Information processing refers to the way humans perceive, interpret, store, and retrieve information from their environment.

B. Importance of understanding information processing in psychology

  • A key aspect of understanding human cognition and behavior
  • Contributes to the development of more effective learning, teaching, and therapeutic strategies

II. Theoretical Models of Information Processing

A. Atkinson-Shiffrin model (1968)

  1. Sensory memory
    • Brief storage of sensory information (visual, auditory, etc.)
    • Allows for initial processing and selection of relevant information
  2. Short-term memory (STM)
    • Temporary storage of information, limited in capacity (~7 items) and duration (~20-30 seconds)
    • Information can be maintained through rehearsal
  3. Long-term memory (LTM)
    • Relatively permanent storage of information, unlimited in capacity and duration
    • Information can be retrieved and transferred back to STM for use

B. Baddeley and Hitch’s working memory model (1974)

  1. Central executive
    • Coordinates and controls the flow of information between other components
    • Plays a role in attention, decision-making, and problem-solving
  2. Phonological loop
    • Processes and stores verbal and auditory information
    • Comprises two components: the phonological store and the articulatory rehearsal process
  3. Visuospatial sketchpad
    • Processes and stores visual and spatial information
    • Allows for mental manipulation of images and spatial relationships
  4. Episodic buffer
    • Temporary storage system that integrates information from different sources (e.g., auditory, visual, and semantic)
    • Facilitates the formation of episodic memories

C. Connectionist models

  1. Parallel distributed processing (PDP)
    • Information is processed simultaneously across multiple interconnected nodes or units
    • Learning occurs through adjusting the strength of connections between nodes
  2. Artificial neural networks
    • Computer-based models that simulate the structure and function of biological neural networks
    • Capable of learning complex patterns and making predictions based on input data

III. Stages of Information Processing

A. Encoding

  1. Automatic vs. controlled processing
    • Automatic processing: effortless, unconscious, and parallel
    • Controlled processing: effortful, conscious, and serial
  2. Levels of processing theory
    • Deeper levels of processing (e.g., semantic, elaborative) lead to better memory encoding and retention than shallow levels (e.g., phonetic, structural)

B. Storage

  1. Duration of memory storage
    • Sensory memory
  • Milliseconds to seconds
  • Short-term memory: seconds to minutes
  • Long-term memory: minutes to a lifetime
  • Capacity of memory storage
    • Sensory memory: large capacity, limited by attention and selection
    • Short-term memory: limited capacity (~7 items)
    • Long-term memory: virtually unlimited capacity

C. Retrieval

  1. Recall vs. recognition
    • Recall: retrieving information from memory without cues
    • Recognition: identifying previously learned information with the help of cues
  2. Retrieval cues
    • External or internal stimuli that aid in the retrieval of information from memory
  3. Context-dependent memory
    • Memory retrieval is enhanced when the context during retrieval matches the context during encoding
  4. State-dependent memory
    • Memory retrieval is enhanced when the physiological or psychological state during retrieval matches the state during encoding

IV. Factors Affecting Information Processing

A. Cognitive load

  1. Intrinsic load
    • Cognitive demands inherent to the complexity of the material being learned
  2. Extraneous load
    • Cognitive demands imposed by the manner in which the material is presented, rather than the material itself
  3. Germane load
    • Cognitive resources dedicated to the construction and automation of schemas

B. Attention

  1. Selective attention
    • The ability to focus on a specific stimulus while ignoring irrelevant information
  2. Divided attention
    • The capacity to attend to and process multiple stimuli simultaneously
  3. Sustained attention
    • The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over an extended period of time

C. Motivation and emotion

  1. Arousal
    • The level of physiological activation, ranging from sleep to extreme excitement
    • Moderate levels of arousal are optimal for information processing and memory performance
  2. Valence
    • The intrinsic attractiveness or aversiveness of a stimulus
    • Positive valence can facilitate learning, while negative valence can hinder it
  3. Mood-congruent memory
    • The tendency to recall information that is congruent with one’s current mood

V. Applications of Information Processing Theory

A. Education

  1. Cognitive load theory in instructional design
    • Designing instructional materials to minimize extraneous cognitive load and maximize germane cognitive load
    • Using multimedia and other tools to support learning
  2. Enhancing memory and learning strategies
    • Techniques such as elaboration, organization, and mnemonics to improve encoding and retrieval
    • Spacing and interleaving of study sessions to enhance long-term retention

B. Human-computer interaction

  1. Designing user interfaces
    • Creating interfaces that align with users’ cognitive abilities and limitations
    • Utilizing visual hierarchy, consistency, and feedback to facilitate efficient information processing
  2. Improving human-computer communication
    • Developing natural language processing and understanding algorithms
    • Implementing context-aware and adaptive systems

C. Cognitive therapy

  1. Identifying and modifying maladaptive thought patterns
    • Techniques such as cognitive restructuring to help individuals recognize and change distorted thinking
  2. Promoting cognitive flexibility
    • Encouraging adaptive problem-solving and perspective-taking to enhance overall cognitive functioning

VI. Conclusion

A. Summary of key points

  • Information processing is a crucial aspect of human cognition
  • Various theoretical models and stages help describe how information is encoded, stored, and retrieved
  • Numerous factors, such as cognitive load, attention, and motivation, influence information processing
  • Applications of information processing theory can be found in education, human-computer interaction, and cognitive therapy

B. Importance of ongoing research in information processing

  • Further research can lead to a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms and factors that influence information processing
  • Continued study can help refine existing models and theories

C. Future directions and potential applications

  • Integration of neuroscientific findings with information processing models
  • Exploration of individual differences in information processing capacities
  • Development of personalized learning and therapeutic interventions based on information processing profiles

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