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Psychology (Optional) Notes & Mind Maps

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    1.1 Definition of Psychology
  2. 1.2 Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century
  3. 1.3 Psychology and scientific methods
  4. 1.4 Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences
  5. 1.5 Application of Psychology to societal problems
    2.1 Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic, and prognostic
  7. 2.2 Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study, and experiments
  8. 2.3 Experimental, Non-Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs
  9. 2.4 Focused group discussions
  10. 2.5 Brainstorming
  11. 2.6 Grounded theory approach
    3.1 Major Steps in Psychological research
    6 Submodules
  13. 3.2 Fundamental versus applied research
  14. 3.3 Methods of Data Collection
    3 Submodules
  15. 3.4 Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental)
  16. 3.5 Application of Statistical Technique
    5 Submodules
  17. 3.6 Item Response Theory
    4.1 Growth and Development, Principles of Development
  19. 4.2 Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behavior
  20. 4.3 Influence of cultural factors in socialization
  21. 4.4 Life span development (Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span)
    5.1 Sensation
    2 Submodules
  23. 5.2 Attention: factors influencing attention
    1 Submodule
  24. 5.3 Perception
    11 Submodules
  25. 6. LEARNING
    6.1 Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models)
  26. 6.2 The Processes of extinction, discrimination, and generalization
  27. 6.3 Programmed learning
  28. 6.4 Probability Learning
  29. 6.5 Self-Instructional Learning
  30. 6.6 Types and the schedules of reinforcement
  31. 6.7 Escape, Avoidance and Punishment
  32. 6.8 Modeling
  33. 6.9 Social Learning
  34. 7. MEMORY
    7.1 Encoding and Remembering
  35. 7.2 Short term memory
  36. 7.3 Long term memory
  37. 7.4 Sensory Memory - Iconic, Echoic & Haptic Memory
  38. 7.5 Multistore Model of Memory
  39. 7.6 Levels of Processing
  40. 7.7 Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory
  41. 7.8 Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure
  42. 7.9 Metamemory
    8.1 Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
  44. 8.2 Concept formation processes
  45. 8.3 Information Processing
  46. 8.4 Reasoning and problem-solving
  47. 8.5 Facilitating and hindering factors in problem-solving
  48. 8.6 Methods of problem-solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity
  49. 8.7 Factors influencing decision making and judgment
  50. 8.8 Recent Trends in Thinking and Problem Solving
  51. 9. Motivation and Emotion
    9.1 Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion
  52. 9.2 Measurement of motivation and emotion
  53. 9.3 Effects of motivation and emotion on behavior
  54. 9.4 Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
  55. 9.5 Factors influencing intrinsic motivation
  56. 9.6 Emotional competence and the related issues
  57. 10. Intelligence and Aptitude
    10.1 Concept of intelligence and aptitude
  58. 10.2 Nature and theories of intelligence: Spearman, Thurstone, Guilford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P Das
  59. 10.3 Emotional Intelligence
  60. 10.4 Social Intelligence
  61. 10.5 Measurement of intelligence and aptitudes
  62. 10.6 Concept of IQ
  63. 10.7 Deviation IQ
  64. 10.8 The constancy of IQ
  65. 10.9 Measurement of multiple intelligence
  66. 10.10 Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
  67. 11. Personality
    11.1 Definition and concept of personality
  68. 11.2 Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches)
  69. 11.3 Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test)
  70. 11.4 The Indian approach to personality
  71. 11.5 Training for personality development
  72. 11.6 Latest approaches like big 5-factor theory
  73. 11.7 The notion of self in different traditions
  74. 12. Attitudes, Values, and Interests
    12.1 Definition of attitudes, values, and interests
  75. 12.2 Components of attitudes
  76. 12.3 Formation and maintenance of attitudes
  77. 12.4 Measurement of attitudes, values, and interests
  78. 12.5 Theories of attitude change
  79. 12.6 Strategies for fostering values
  80. 12.7 Formation of stereotypes and prejudices
  81. 12.8 Changing others behavior
  82. 12.9 Theories of attribution
  83. 12.10 Recent trends in Attitudes, Values and Interests
Module 45 of 83
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8.3 Information Processing

I. Introduction

A. Definition of information processing

Information processing refers to the way humans perceive, interpret, store, and retrieve information from their environment.

B. Importance of understanding information processing in psychology

  • A key aspect of understanding human cognition and behavior
  • Contributes to the development of more effective learning, teaching, and therapeutic strategies

II. Theoretical Models of Information Processing

A. Atkinson-Shiffrin model (1968)

  1. Sensory memory
    • Brief storage of sensory information (visual, auditory, etc.)
    • Allows for initial processing and selection of relevant information
  2. Short-term memory (STM)
    • Temporary storage of information, limited in capacity (~7 items) and duration (~20-30 seconds)
    • Information can be maintained through rehearsal
  3. Long-term memory (LTM)
    • Relatively permanent storage of information, unlimited in capacity and duration
    • Information can be retrieved and transferred back to STM for use

B. Baddeley and Hitch’s working memory model (1974)

  1. Central executive
    • Coordinates and controls the flow of information between other components
    • Plays a role in attention, decision-making, and problem-solving
  2. Phonological loop
    • Processes and stores verbal and auditory information
    • Comprises two components: the phonological store and the articulatory rehearsal process
  3. Visuospatial sketchpad
    • Processes and stores visual and spatial information
    • Allows for mental manipulation of images and spatial relationships
  4. Episodic buffer
    • Temporary storage system that integrates information from different sources (e.g., auditory, visual, and semantic)
    • Facilitates the formation of episodic memories

C. Connectionist models

  1. Parallel distributed processing (PDP)
    • Information is processed simultaneously across multiple interconnected nodes or units
    • Learning occurs through adjusting the strength of connections between nodes
  2. Artificial neural networks
    • Computer-based models that simulate the structure and function of biological neural networks
    • Capable of learning complex patterns and making predictions based on input data

III. Stages of Information Processing

A. Encoding

  1. Automatic vs. controlled processing
    • Automatic processing: effortless, unconscious, and parallel
    • Controlled processing: effortful, conscious, and serial
  2. Levels of processing theory
    • Deeper levels of processing (e.g., semantic, elaborative) lead to better memory encoding and retention than shallow levels (e.g., phonetic, structural)

B. Storage

  1. Duration of memory storage
    • Sensory memory
  • Milliseconds to seconds
  • Short-term memory: seconds to minutes
  • Long-term memory: minutes to a lifetime
  • Capacity of memory storage
    • Sensory memory: large capacity, limited by attention and selection
    • Short-term memory: limited capacity (~7 items)
    • Long-term memory: virtually unlimited capacity

C. Retrieval

  1. Recall vs. recognition
    • Recall: retrieving information from memory without cues
    • Recognition: identifying previously learned information with the help of cues
  2. Retrieval cues
    • External or internal stimuli that aid in the retrieval of information from memory
  3. Context-dependent memory
    • Memory retrieval is enhanced when the context during retrieval matches the context during encoding
  4. State-dependent memory
    • Memory retrieval is enhanced when the physiological or psychological state during retrieval matches the state during encoding

IV. Factors Affecting Information Processing

A. Cognitive load

  1. Intrinsic load
    • Cognitive demands inherent to the complexity of the material being learned
  2. Extraneous load
    • Cognitive demands imposed by the manner in which the material is presented, rather than the material itself
  3. Germane load
    • Cognitive resources dedicated to the construction and automation of schemas

B. Attention

  1. Selective attention
    • The ability to focus on a specific stimulus while ignoring irrelevant information
  2. Divided attention
    • The capacity to attend to and process multiple stimuli simultaneously
  3. Sustained attention
    • The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over an extended period of time

C. Motivation and emotion

  1. Arousal
    • The level of physiological activation, ranging from sleep to extreme excitement
    • Moderate levels of arousal are optimal for information processing and memory performance
  2. Valence
    • The intrinsic attractiveness or aversiveness of a stimulus
    • Positive valence can facilitate learning, while negative valence can hinder it
  3. Mood-congruent memory
    • The tendency to recall information that is congruent with one’s current mood

V. Applications of Information Processing Theory

A. Education

  1. Cognitive load theory in instructional design
    • Designing instructional materials to minimize extraneous cognitive load and maximize germane cognitive load
    • Using multimedia and other tools to support learning
  2. Enhancing memory and learning strategies
    • Techniques such as elaboration, organization, and mnemonics to improve encoding and retrieval
    • Spacing and interleaving of study sessions to enhance long-term retention

B. Human-computer interaction

  1. Designing user interfaces
    • Creating interfaces that align with users’ cognitive abilities and limitations
    • Utilizing visual hierarchy, consistency, and feedback to facilitate efficient information processing
  2. Improving human-computer communication
    • Developing natural language processing and understanding algorithms
    • Implementing context-aware and adaptive systems

C. Cognitive therapy

  1. Identifying and modifying maladaptive thought patterns
    • Techniques such as cognitive restructuring to help individuals recognize and change distorted thinking
  2. Promoting cognitive flexibility
    • Encouraging adaptive problem-solving and perspective-taking to enhance overall cognitive functioning

VI. Conclusion

A. Summary of key points

  • Information processing is a crucial aspect of human cognition
  • Various theoretical models and stages help describe how information is encoded, stored, and retrieved
  • Numerous factors, such as cognitive load, attention, and motivation, influence information processing
  • Applications of information processing theory can be found in education, human-computer interaction, and cognitive therapy

B. Importance of ongoing research in information processing

  • Further research can lead to a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms and factors that influence information processing
  • Continued study can help refine existing models and theories

C. Future directions and potential applications

  • Integration of neuroscientific findings with information processing models
  • Exploration of individual differences in information processing capacities
  • Development of personalized learning and therapeutic interventions based on information processing profiles
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