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Psychology (Optional) Notes & Mind Maps

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  1. 1. INTRODUCTION

    1.1 Definition of Psychology
  2. 1.2 Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st century
  3. 1.3 Psychology and scientific methods
  4. 1.4 Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences
  5. 1.5 Application of Psychology to societal problems
  6. 2. METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGY
    2.1 Types of research: Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic, and prognostic
  7. 2.2 Methods of Research: Survey, observation, case-study, and experiments
  8. 2.3 Experimental, Non-Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs
  9. 2.4 Focused group discussions
  10. 2.5 Brainstorming
  11. 2.6 Grounded theory approach
  12. 3. RESEARCH METHODS
    3.1 Major Steps in Psychological research
    6 Submodules
  13. 3.2 Fundamental versus applied research
  14. 3.3 Methods of Data Collection
    3 Submodules
  15. 3.4 Research designs (ex-post facto and experimental)
  16. 3.5 Application of Statistical Technique
    5 Submodules
  17. 3.6 Item Response Theory
  18. 4. DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN BEHAVIOUR
    4.1 Growth and Development, Principles of Development
  19. 4.2 Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behavior
  20. 4.3 Influence of cultural factors in socialization
  21. 4.4 Life span development (Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span)
  22. 5. SENSATION, ATTENTION, AND PERCEPTION
    5.1 Sensation
    2 Submodules
  23. 5.2 Attention: factors influencing attention
    1 Submodule
  24. 5.3 Perception
    11 Submodules
  25. 6. LEARNING
    6.1 Concept and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models)
  26. 6.2 The Processes of extinction, discrimination, and generalization
  27. 6.3 Programmed learning
  28. 6.4 Probability Learning
  29. 6.5 Self-Instructional Learning
  30. 6.6 Types and the schedules of reinforcement
  31. 6.7 Escape, Avoidance and Punishment
  32. 6.8 Modeling
  33. 6.9 Social Learning
  34. 7. MEMORY
    7.1 Encoding and Remembering
  35. 7.2 Short term memory
  36. 7.3 Long term memory
  37. 7.4 Sensory Memory - Iconic, Echoic & Haptic Memory
  38. 7.5 Multistore Model of Memory
  39. 7.6 Levels of Processing
  40. 7.7 Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory
  41. 7.8 Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure
  42. 7.9 Metamemory
  43. 8. THINKING AND PROBLEM SOLVING
    8.1 Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
  44. 8.2 Concept formation processes
  45. 8.3 Information Processing
  46. 8.4 Reasoning and problem-solving
  47. 8.5 Facilitating and hindering factors in problem-solving
  48. 8.6 Methods of problem-solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity
  49. 8.7 Factors influencing decision making and judgment
  50. 8.8 Recent Trends in Thinking and Problem Solving
  51. 9. Motivation and Emotion
    9.1 Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion
  52. 9.2 Measurement of motivation and emotion
  53. 9.3 Effects of motivation and emotion on behavior
  54. 9.4 Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation
  55. 9.5 Factors influencing intrinsic motivation
  56. 9.6 Emotional competence and the related issues
  57. 10. Intelligence and Aptitude
    10.1 Concept of intelligence and aptitude
  58. 10.2 Nature and theories of intelligence: Spearman, Thurstone, Guilford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P Das
  59. 10.3 Emotional Intelligence
  60. 10.4 Social Intelligence
  61. 10.5 Measurement of intelligence and aptitudes
  62. 10.6 Concept of IQ
  63. 10.7 Deviation IQ
  64. 10.8 The constancy of IQ
  65. 10.9 Measurement of multiple intelligence
  66. 10.10 Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
  67. 11. Personality
    11.1 Definition and concept of personality
  68. 11.2 Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, sociocultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches)
  69. 11.3 Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test)
  70. 11.4 The Indian approach to personality
  71. 11.5 Training for personality development
  72. 11.6 Latest approaches like big 5-factor theory
  73. 11.7 The notion of self in different traditions
  74. 12. Attitudes, Values, and Interests
    12.1 Definition of attitudes, values, and interests
  75. 12.2 Components of attitudes
  76. 12.3 Formation and maintenance of attitudes
  77. 12.4 Measurement of attitudes, values, and interests
  78. 12.5 Theories of attitude change
  79. 12.6 Strategies for fostering values
  80. 12.7 Formation of stereotypes and prejudices
  81. 12.8 Changing others behavior
  82. 12.9 Theories of attribution
  83. 12.10 Recent trends in Attitudes, Values and Interests
  84. 13. Language and Communication
    13.1 Properties of Human Language
  85. 13.2 Structure of language and linguistic hierarchy
  86. 13.3 Language acquisition: Predisposition & critical period hypothesis
  87. 13.4 Theories of language development: Skinner and Chomsky
  88. 13.5 Process and types of communication – effective communication training
  89. 14. Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology
    14.1 Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing
  90. 14.2 Artificial Intelligence and Psychology
  91. 14.3 Psychocybernetics
  92. 14.4 Study of consciousness-sleep-wake schedules
  93. 14.5 Dreams
  94. 14.6 Stimulus deprivation
  95. 14.7 Meditation
  96. 14.8 Hypnotic/drug-induced states
  97. 14.9 Extrasensory perception
  98. 14.10 Intersensory perception & simulation studies
  99. 15. Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences
    15.1 The nature of individual differences
  100. 15.2 Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests
  101. 15.3 Types of psychological tests
  102. 15.4 Use, misuse, limitation & ethical issues of psychological tests
  103. 15.5 Concept of health-ill health
  104. 15.6 Positive health & well being
  105. 15.7 Causal factors in mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders, schizophrenia, and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders)
  106. 15.8 Factors influencing positive health, well being, lifestyle and quality of life
  107. 15.9 Happiness Disposition
  108. 16. Therapeutic Approaches
    16.1 Introduction: Overview of Therapeutic Approaches and Their Importance in Mental Health
  109. 16.2 Psychodynamic therapies
  110. 16.3 Behavior Therapies
  111. 16.4 Client centered therapy
  112. 16.5 Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation)
  113. 16.6 Fostering mental health
  114. 17. Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour
    17.1 Personnel selection and training
  115. 17.2 Use of psychological tests in the industry
  116. 17.3 Training and human resource development
  117. 17.4 Theories of work motivation – Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom
  118. 17.5 Advertising and marketing
  119. 17.6 Stress and its management
  120. 17.7 Ergonomics
  121. 17.8 Consumer Psychology
  122. 17.9 Managerial effectiveness
  123. 17.10 Transformational leadership
  124. 17.11 Sensitivity training
  125. 17.12 Power and politics in organizations
  126. 18. Application of Psychology to Educational Field
    18.1 Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process
  127. 18.2 Learning Styles
  128. 18.3 Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training
  129. 18.4 Training for improving memory and better academic achievement
  130. 18.5 Personality development and value education, Educational, vocational guidance and career counseling
  131. 18.6 Use of psychological tests in educational institutions
  132. 18.7 Effective strategies in guidance programs
  133. 19. Community Psychology
    19.1 Definition and concept of community psychology
  134. 19.2 Use of small groups in social action
  135. 19.3 Arousing community consciousness and action for handling social problems
  136. 19.4 Group decision making and leadership for social change
  137. 19.5 Effective strategies for social change
  138. 20. Rehabilitation Psychology
    20.1 Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programs-role of psychologists
  139. 20.2 Organising of services for the rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons
  140. 20.3 Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behavior
  141. 20.4 Rehabilitation of victims of violence
  142. 20.5 Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims
  143. 20.6 The role of social agencies
  144. 21. Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups
    21.1 The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation
  145. 21.2 Social, physical, cultural, and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups
  146. 21.3 Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development
  147. 21.4 Relative and prolonged deprivation
  148. 22. Psychological problems of social integration
    22.1 The concept of social integration
  149. 22.2 The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice
  150. 22.3 Nature and the manifestation of prejudice between the in-group and out-group
  151. 22.4 Causal factors of social conflicts and prejudices
  152. 22.5 Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices
  153. 22.6 Measures to achieve social integration
  154. 23. Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media
    23.1 The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists
  155. 23.2 Selection and training of psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media
  156. 23.3 Distance learning through IT and mass media
  157. 23.4 Entrepreneurship through e-commerce
  158. 23.5 Multilevel marketing
  159. 23.6 Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media
  160. 23.7 Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology
  161. 24. Psychology and Economic development
    24.1 Achievement motivation and economic development
  162. 24.2 Characteristics of entrepreneurial behavior
  163. 24.3 Motivating and training people for entrepreneurship and economic development
  164. 24.4 Consumer rights and consumer awareness
  165. 24.5 Government policies for the promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entrepreneurs
  166. 25. Application of psychology to environment and related fields
    25.1 Environmental psychology- effects of noise, pollution, and crowding
  167. 25.2 Population psychology: psychological consequences of population explosion and high population density
  168. 25.3 Motivating for small family norm
  169. 25.4 Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of the environment
  170. 26. Application of psychology in other fields
    26.1 [Military Psychology] Devising psychological tests for defense personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling
  171. 26.2 [Military Psychology] Training psychologists to work with defense personnel in promoting positive health
  172. 26.3 [Military Psychology] Human engineering in defense
  173. 26.4 Sports Psychology
  174. 26.5 Media influences on pro and antisocial behavior
  175. 26.6 Psychology of Terrorism
  176. 27. Psychology of Gender
    27.1 Issues of discrimination
  177. 27.2 Management of Diversity
  178. 27.3 Glass ceiling effect
  179. 27.4 Self-fulfilling prophesy
  180. 27.5 Women and Indian society
Module 13 of 180
In Progress

3.2 Fundamental versus applied research

I. Overview of the different types of research in psychology

  • Basic Research: Also known as fundamental or pure research, this type of research aims to increase the understanding of a phenomenon without specific practical applications in mind. It is mainly concerned with expanding knowledge and theories in psychology.
  • Applied Research: This type of research is aimed at solving practical problems and improving real-world outcomes. It involves the application of psychological theories and principles to specific problems or issues in areas such as health, education, and the workplace.
  • Quantitative Research: This type of research uses numerical data and statistical analysis to test hypotheses and answer research questions. It is mainly used to establish cause-and-effect relationships and generalize findings to a larger population.
  • Qualitative Research: This type of research uses non-numerical data such as observation, interviews, and open-ended responses to understand the meaning and experiences of individuals and groups. It is mainly used to explore and understand complex phenomena and provide rich and detailed descriptions.
  • Experimental Research: This type of research uses a controlled environment to manipulate variables and observe the effects on a sample. It allows researchers to establish cause-and-effect relationships and test hypotheses.
  • Correlational Research: This type of research examines the relationship between two or more variables without manipulation. It can only establish association and cannot infer causality.
  • Longitudinal Research: This type of research involves the collection of data over a prolonged period of time, usually several months or years. It allows researchers to study the changes and development of a phenomenon over time.
  • Cross-Sectional Research: This type of research involves the collection of data from different individuals or groups at the same point in time. It allows researchers to compare different populations and identify patterns or trends in the data.

II. Fundamental Research in Psychology

Definition and characteristics of fundamental research

  • Definition: Fundamental research, also known as basic or pure research, is a type of research that aims to increase knowledge and understanding of a phenomenon without specific practical applications in mind. It is mainly concerned with expanding knowledge and theories in psychology.
  • Characteristics:
    • Theoretical in nature: Fundamental research is primarily focused on understanding the underlying principles and mechanisms that govern a phenomenon.
    • Long-term goal: The primary goal of fundamental research is to contribute to the advancement of knowledge, rather than solving an immediate problem or addressing a specific application.
    • Lack of immediate practical application: The findings of fundamental research may not have immediate practical applications, but they may lead to future applied research or technological advancements.
    • Use of scientific method: Fundamental research is typically conducted using the scientific method, which includes designing experiments, collecting data, analyzing results, and drawing conclusions based on the evidence.
    • Open-ended: Fundamental research is often open-ended, meaning that the researcher may not have a specific hypothesis or outcome in mind.
    • Replicable: Fundamental research is typically designed to be replicable, meaning that other researchers should be able to replicate the study and obtain similar results.

Examples of fundamental research in psychology, such as studies on memory and cognition

  • Memory and Cognition:
    • Studies on how memory works, how it is affected by different factors, and how it can be improved.
    • Research on cognitive processes such as perception, attention, problem-solving, and decision-making.
    • Investigation of the neural and physiological mechanisms underlying cognitive functions.
  • Developmental Psychology:
    • Studies on how children and adolescents develop cognitive, emotional, and social skills over time.
    • Investigation of the factors that influence development, such as genetics, environment, and parenting.
    • Research on the origins and development of mental disorders in children and adolescents.
  • Social Psychology:
    • Studies on how individuals interact and influence each other in social groups and settings.
    • Research on the origins and maintenance of stereotypes, prejudice, and discrimination.
    • Investigation of the cognitive and emotional processes that underlie social behavior.
  • Personality Psychology:
    • Studies on the characteristics and traits that make each individual unique.
    • Research on how personality develops and changes over time.
    • Investigation of the factors that influence personality, such as genetics, environment, and culture.
  • Behavioral Neuroscience:
    • Studies on the neural and physiological mechanisms underlying behavior and mental processes.
    • Research on the relationship between the brain and behavior.
    • Investigation of the neural and physiological basis of mental disorders.

Importance of fundamental research for the advancement of psychological knowledge

  • Theoretical Advancement: Fundamental research contributes to the advancement of psychological knowledge by expanding and refining existing theories and developing new ones. It helps to deepen our understanding of the underlying principles and mechanisms that govern human behavior and mental processes.
  • Empirical Evidence: Fundamental research provides empirical evidence to support or disprove existing theories. It allows researchers to test hypotheses and draw conclusions based on the evidence. This helps to build a stronger and more robust body of knowledge in psychology.
  • New Discoveries: Fundamental research can lead to new discoveries and breakthroughs in psychology. For example, a fundamental research study on memory could reveal new insights into how memory works and how it can be improved.
  • Future Applications: The findings of fundamental research may not have immediate practical applications, but they can lead to future applied research or technological advancements. For example, a fundamental research study on the neural basis of memory could lead to the development of new memory-enhancing technologies.
  • Replicability: Fundamental research is typically designed to be replicable, meaning that other researchers should be able to replicate the study and obtain similar results. This helps to build a strong and reliable body of knowledge in psychology.

Limitations of Fundamental Research in Psychology:

  • Lack of immediate practical application: The findings of fundamental research may not have immediate practical applications, which can make it less relevant to some stakeholders.
  • Long-term goal: The primary goal of fundamental research is to contribute to the advancement of knowledge, rather than solving an immediate problem or addressing a specific application, which can make it less relevant to some stakeholders.
  • High cost: Fundamental research can be expensive, as it often requires complex research design, equipment, and data analysis.
  • Limited generalizability: Because of the high level of experimental control and the use of specific samples, fundamental research findings may not generalize to the broader population.

III. Applied Research in Psychology

Definition and characteristics of applied research

  • Definition: Applied research is a type of research that is aimed at solving practical problems and improving real-world outcomes. It involves the application of psychological theories and principles to specific problems or issues in areas such as health, education, and the workplace.
  • Characteristics:
    • Practical in nature: Applied research is primarily focused on solving practical problems and addressing specific issues.
    • Short-term goal: The primary goal of applied research is to provide solutions to immediate problems and improve real-world outcomes.
    • Specific practical applications: The findings of applied research have immediate practical applications, such as the development of new interventions, programs, or policies.
    • Use of scientific method: Like fundamental research, applied research is typically conducted using the scientific method, which includes designing experiments, collecting data, analyzing results, and drawing conclusions based on the evidence.
    • Specific hypothesis: Applied research often has a specific hypothesis or outcome in mind, unlike fundamental research.
    • Replicable: Applied research is typically designed to be replicable, meaning that other researchers should be able to replicate the study and obtain similar results.

Examples of applied research in psychology, such as studies on job performance and mental health interventions

  • Mental Health:
    • Studies on the effectiveness of different treatments for mental disorders such as therapy, medication, and alternative treatments.
    • Research on the development and implementation of interventions to prevent mental health issues.
    • Investigation of the factors that contribute to mental health disparities and efforts to address them.
  • Education:
    • Studies on the effectiveness of different teaching methods and educational programs.
    • Research on the development of interventions to improve learning outcomes and address learning difficulties.
    • Investigation of the factors that contribute to educational disparities and efforts to address them.
  • Workplace:
    • Studies on the factors that contribute to job satisfaction and employee well-being.
    • Research on the development of interventions to improve job performance and productivity.
    • Investigation of the factors that contribute to workplace stress and efforts to address them.
  • Aging:
    • Studies on the cognitive and physical changes that occur with aging.
    • Research on the development of interventions to improve quality of life for older adults.
    • Investigation of the factors that contribute to age-related disorders and efforts to address them.
  • Forensic Psychology:
    • Studies on the factors that contribute to criminal behavior and efforts to prevent it.
    • Research on the development of interventions to improve the rehabilitation of offenders.
    • Investigation of the psychological factors involved in legal decision-making, such as eyewitness testimony and jury behavior.

Importance of applied research for addressing practical problems and improving real-world outcomes

  • Problem-Solving: Applied research is aimed at solving practical problems and addressing specific issues. The findings of applied research can be used to develop new interventions, programs, or policies that can improve real-world outcomes.
  • Evidence-Based Practice: Applied research provides evidence-based solutions to practical problems. This helps practitioners, policymakers, and decision-makers to make informed decisions based on the best available evidence.
  • Improving Quality of Life: Applied research can be used to improve the quality of life for individuals, families, and communities. For example, applied research in mental health can lead to the development of new interventions that can improve the mental well-being of individuals and families.
  • Addressing Disparities: Applied research can be used to address disparities in areas such as health, education, and the workplace. For example, applied research in education can be used to identify and address the factors that contribute to educational disparities and improve learning outcomes for disadvantaged students.
  • Replicability: Applied research is typically designed to be replicable, meaning that other researchers should be able to replicate the study and obtain similar results. This helps to ensure that the interventions and programs developed from applied research are effective and can be replicated in different settings.

Limitations of Applied Research in Psychology:

  • Limited scope: Applied research is often focused on solving specific problems or addressing specific issues, which can limit the generalizability of the findings to other areas.
  • Bias towards practicality: The focus on practical solutions and immediate applications can lead to a bias towards studies that have a higher chance of producing actionable results, and away from more exploratory or theoretical research.
  • Lack of theoretical development: Applied research is primarily focused on solving practical problems, which can limit the development of theoretical knowledge and understanding.
  • Limited replicability: The focus on solving specific problems or addressing specific issues can make it difficult to replicate studies in different settings or with different populations.
  • Limited external validity: The focus on solving specific problems or addressing specific issues can make it difficult to generalize findings to other settings or populations.
  • Limited control over the research: Applied research often takes place in naturalistic settings, which can limit the control that the researcher has over the research environment.

IV. Differences and Similarities between Fundamental and Applied Research

Fundamental Research Applied Research
Goals Increase understanding and advance psychological knowledge Solve practical problems and improve real-world outcomes
Methods Use of scientific method to test hypotheses and expand theories Use of scientific method to test hypotheses and provide evidence-based solutions
Outcomes Advancement of theoretical knowledge, new discoveries, and potential future applications Immediate practical applications such as the development of new interventions, programs, or policies
Time Frame Long-term Short-term
Replicability Typically designed to be replicable Typically designed to be replicable
Control over variables High Low
Generalizability of findings Limited Limited
Theoretical Relevance High Low
Practical Relevance Low High
Funding May be difficult to secure funding for fundamental research, as it may not have immediate practical applications. May be easier to secure funding for applied research, as it addresses specific practical problems.

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