In simple terms, the PRITHVI Scheme is a significant project approved by the Indian government, spearheaded by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, with a budget of Rs. 4,797 crore. Spanning from 2021 to 2026, its aim is to unify and enhance Earth System Sciences research in India. It integrates five existing sub-schemes, focusing on various aspects of earth sciences such as atmospheric and climate research, ocean services, polar science, seismology, and outreach programs. The scheme promises to transform India’s approach to research and practical applications in Earth System Sciences, offering societal, environmental, and economic benefits.