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[Newsbits] 5.01.2024: Similipal Kai Chutney, GSAT-20, Wetland City Tag & more

newsbits mindmap notes
Wetland City Tag mind map
Recent News
January 2024
Nominations
Indore
Bhopal
Udaipur
What
Ramsar Convention
Wetland City Accreditation
Promotes
Conservation
Wise use of wetlands
Urban and peri-urban wetlands
Benefits
Economic
Social
Cultural
Functions
Absorb rainfall
Reduce flooding
Improve water quality
Why
Urbanization
Threat to wetlands
Encroachment and misuse
Wetlands value
Flood control
Water purification
Where
Cities
Near wetlands
Globally recognized
Who
Ramsar Convention
172 Contracting Parties
Ministry of Environment, Forest, and Climate Change
Submits proposals
How
Voluntary scheme
International recognition
Positive publicity
Significance
Conservation awareness
Participation in planning
Sustainable socio-economic benefits
Challenges
Human population pressure
Rapid urbanization
Agricultural activities
Invasive species
Pollution
Climate change
Dams altering water flow
Weed choking
Sand and shell removal
Aquaculture wastes
Upstream human activities
Way Forward
Holistic environmental management
People's participation
Consider biota and local community
Legal and stakeholder involvement
Sustainable management programs
Scientific, technical, socio-economic cooperation
Integrated, collaborative approach

The Wetland City Tag is a part of the Ramsar Convention’s Wetland City Accreditation scheme, aimed at promoting the conservation and wise use of urban and peri-urban wetlands. Recently, in January 2024, three Indian cities – Indore, Bhopal, and Udaipur – were nominated for this accreditation. This scheme is significant as it recognizes cities that value their natural or human-made wetlands and encourages their conservation and sustainable use. Wetlands provide numerous benefits, including flood control, water purification, and contributing to economic, social, and cultural well-being. However, they face threats from urbanization, pollution, climate change, and other human activities. To counter these threats, a holistic approach involving stakeholder participation, legal frameworks, and sustainable management is essential for wetland conservation.

Supreme Court Legal Services Committee mind map
Recent News
January 2024
Justice BR Gavai
New Head
Third Senior Judge
Supreme Court of India
Replaces Justice Sanjiv Khanna
Department of Justice Notification
Dated December 29, 2023
Five Advocates Nominated
Senior Advocate Vibha Datta Makhija
Senior Advocate Siddhartha Dave
Senior Advocate Aparajita Singh
Advocate Mohammad Shoeb Alam
Advocate K. Parameshwar Krishnaswamy
When
Established in 1987
Why
Provide Free Legal Aid
Help Marginalized and Weaker Sections
What
Legal Services Authorities Act, 1987
Section 12
Administer Legal Services Program
Supreme Court of India
Where
India
Who
Composed of 9 Members
Appointed by Chief Justice of India
How
Legal Aid to Eligible Persons
Promote Rule of Law
Functions
Policies and Principles
Legal Services Act Provisions
Economic Schemes
Legal Aid for Poor
Funds Utilization
State and District Authorities
Legal Aid Camps
Rural and Slum Areas
Research
Legal Aid Field
Fundamental Duties
Part IV-A of Constitution
Legal Education Programs
Bar Council of India Collaboration
Legal Literacy
Spreading Awareness
Support Voluntary Institutions
Grass-root Level
Coordination and Monitoring
Various Legal Services Authorities

The Supreme Court Legal Services Committee (SCLSC) in India, established in 1987, primarily focuses on providing free legal aid to marginalized and weaker sections of society. This is in line with the provisions of the Legal Services Authorities Act of 1987. The SCLSC is responsible for administering the legal services program as it relates to the Supreme Court. Composed of nine members appointed by the Chief Justice of India, it recently saw Justice BR Gavai appointed as its new head in January 2024. The committee’s key functions include formulating policies and principles, developing economical schemes for legal aid, and promoting legal literacy and awareness, particularly among the poorer segments of society.

/ Space
GSAT-20 mind map
Recent News
NewSpace India Limited
Undertaking GSAT-20 mission
Q2 2024 planned launch
Offering Ka-band HTS capacity
Partnership with SpaceX
Using Falcon 9 rocket
First time ISRO using SpaceX
Launch site Cape Canaveral
For heavyweight satellite
When
Q2 2024
Why
Enhance communication infrastructure
Support India's Smart Cities Mission
What
Weight
4700 kg
High throughput capacity
Ka-Ka band
70 Gbit/s throughput
40 beams
80 polarisations
Coverage
Pan-India
Remote areas included
Where
Launch Site
Cape Canaveral
Orbital Position
Geostationary orbit
55° East longitude
Who
ISRO
Joint development
With Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre
New Space India Limited
Operator and owner
Leasing capacity to Dish TV
SpaceX
Launch contractor
How
Electric Propulsion
First Indian satellite with full reliance
More efficient than chemical-based
Significance
Cost-effective broadband services
Supports IFMC
Aids cellular backhaul service
Challenges
Heavyweight satellite
Surpasses ISRO's current launch capacity
Way Forward
Continued collaboration
Between ISRO and SpaceX
Expansion of high-throughput satellite services

The GSAT-20 satellite, scheduled for launch in the second quarter of 2024, represents a significant advancement in India’s space capabilities. Operated by NewSpace India Limited and developed jointly by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre, this mission marks the first time ISRO is partnering with SpaceX, using their Falcon 9 rocket. The GSAT-20, weighing 4,700 kg and employing electric propulsion, is designed to enhance India’s communication infrastructure, particularly supporting the Smart Cities Mission. It features a high-throughput Ka-band communications payload, capable of delivering 70 Gbit/s throughput across 40 beams, effectively creating 80 polarizations for extensive coverage, including remote areas of India. This mission underscores India’s commitment to advancing its satellite communication technology while addressing challenges such as the satellite’s heavyweight.

Similipal Kai Chutney mind map
Recent News
Received GI Tag
When
January 2, 2024
Where
Mayurbhanj District, Odisha
Origin
Tribal People
Location
Mayurbhanj District
Districts Involved
Keonjhar, Sundargarh
Main Ingredient
Red Weaver Ants
Known Locally As
Kai
Culinary Tradition
Hundreds of Years
Nutritional Value
Medicinal Properties
Recipe
Basic Ingredients
Cleaned Ants
Ginger
Garlic
Chillies
Salt
Preservation
Lasts Six Months
Room Temperature
Consumption
With Meals, Snacks

Similipal Kai Chutney is a traditional delicacy from the tribal regions of Odisha’s Mayurbhanj district, primarily made from red weaver ants known locally as ‘Kai’. This unique chutney, part of the culinary heritage for hundreds of years, received a Geographical Indication (GI) tag on January 2, 2024. The chutney, celebrated for its medicinal properties and nutritional value, typically includes ingredients like ginger, garlic, chillies, and salt. It’s noted for its long shelf life, lasting up to six months at room temperature, and is commonly consumed with meals and snacks.

SEBI Regulation of Short Selling mind map
Recent News
Supreme Court Oversight
Central Government and SEBI
Post Adani Group Allegations
January 4, 2024
What
Definition
Selling Unowned Stock
Profit from Price Fall
Historical Prohibitions
2001-2008 Ban
2020 Temporary Ban
Current SEBI Guidelines
Permits All Investor Classes
Prohibits Naked Short Selling
Institutional Day Trading Banned
SLB Scheme Implementation
Stocks in F&O Eligible
Disclosure Requirements
Why
Market Stability Concerns
Prevent Manipulation
Economic Impact
Who
SEBI
Market Regulator
Institutional Investors
Subject to Restrictions
Retail Investors
Permitted with Disclosures
How
Securities Lending
Borrowing Scheme
Delivery Obligations
Deterrent Provisions
Pros/Significance
Enhances Market Efficiency
Safeguards Investor Interests
Transparent Trading Environment
Cons and/or Challenges
Potential for Market Falls
Risks of Manipulation
Delivery Failures

The Indian Government, through the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), has implemented a comprehensive framework to regulate short selling in the securities market. Short selling involves selling a stock that the seller doesn’t own at the time of the trade, aiming to profit from a price drop. SEBI’s recent guidelines permit all classes of investors to engage in short selling, strictly prohibiting naked short selling. Institutional investors face restrictions like the ban on day trading and are required to declare their short sales. The Securities Lending and Borrowing (SLB) scheme supports this practice. These measures aim to enhance market efficiency, protect investor interests, and maintain a transparent and secure trading environment.

ERNET India mind map
Recent News
Integrated Web Portal Launched
Domain Registration
DNS Services
For Educational Institutions
Recruitment 2024
Positions Available
Senior Manager
Jr. Hindi Translator
Personal Assistant
Accountant
Jr. Assistant
Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology
Autonomous Scientific Society
Governing Council
Origin
Initiated in 1986
Funded by
Government of India
United Nations Development Program
Participating Agencies
NCST (Now CDAC) Bombay
IISc Bangalore
Five IITs
Delhi
Bombay
Kanpur
Kharagpur
Madras
DoE, New Delhi
Contributions
Brought Internet to India
National Networking Capabilities
Protocol Software Engineering
User Base
1100 Institutes
Under Different Schemes
Network
Terrestrial and Satellite WAN
VSAT Technology
International Connectivity
Gateways in
New Delhi
Mumbai
Bangalore
Kolkata
Traffic
Over 200 GB Daily
Services
Access Services
Application Services
Hosting Services
Operations Support Services
Additional Services
Consultancy
Project Management
Training
Web Hosting
E-mail
Video Conferencing
Domain Registration
CUG Services
Sectors Served
Health
Agriculture
Higher Education
Schools
Science and Technology
Technology Focus Areas
National Academic and Research Network
R&D in Data Communication
Human Resource Development
High-end Networking
Educational Content
Campus-wide High Speed LAN

ERNET India, an autonomous scientific society under the Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology, plays a pivotal role in India’s digital landscape. It was established in 1986 with joint funding from the Government of India and the United Nations Development Program, and it involves top academic institutions like IISc Bangalore and the IITs. ERNET India was instrumental in introducing the Internet to the country and has since developed a sophisticated terrestrial and satellite network to support its vast user base of over 1100 institutes. The organization is not just about providing connectivity; it also offers a range of services like web hosting, e-mail, video conferencing, domain registration, and other IT and ICT services, catering to sectors like health, agriculture, education, and science & technology. Recently, they launched an integrated web portal for educational institutions and announced their 2024 recruitment.

NewSpace India Limited (NSIL) mind map
Recent News
January 2024
GSAT-20 Mission
Renamed GSAT-N2
High-throughput Ka-band Satellite
Scheduled Q2 2024 Launch
Partnership with SpaceX
Falcon-9 Rocket
Predecessor
GSAT-24
Established
Date
6 March 2019
Under
Department of Space
Company Act 2013
Purpose
Scale Up
Private Sector Participation
In Indian Space Programmes
Commercial Arm
Of ISRO
Functions and Activities
Producing
Launch Vehicles
Assembling
Integrating
Roles
Nodal Agency
PSLV Production
Development
Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)
Launch Services
Customer Satellites
Since 1999
297 Satellites from 33 Countries
Till June 2019
Satellite Services
Transponder Capacity
C, Ku, Ka, S Bands
Broadcasting
Telecom Services
DTH
TV
DSNG
VSAT
Remote Sensing Services
Mission Support Services
Building Satellites
Various Applications
Communication
Earth Observation
Navigation
Space Science
Technology Experiments
Commercial Applications
Creating Ecosystem
Satellite Systems
Subsystems
Ground Infrastructure

NewSpace India Limited (NSIL), established on March 6, 2019, under India’s Department of Space, serves as the commercial arm of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Its primary role is to enhance private sector involvement in India’s space programs. NSIL is currently preparing for the GSAT-20 mission, scheduled for the second quarter of 2024, in collaboration with SpaceX using the Falcon-9 rocket. The company’s functions encompass producing and assembling launch vehicles, offering satellite services across various spectrums, and contributing to building satellites for diverse applications. NSIL is central to scaling up India’s technological capabilities in the space sector, emphasizing industry participation and global service provision.

Tamil Nadu Semiconductor and Advanced Electronics Policy mind map
Recent News
Unveiling
When
January 7 and 8
Where
Global Investors' Meet
Why
Enhance electronics export hub status
What
Focus
Semiconductor design emphasis
High-value electronics manufacturing
Incentives and Subsidies
For investing firms
Manpower Development
Programs like Naan Mudhalvan
Training youth for sector
Past Investments
Investments in 2015
Rs 2.42 trillion
Investments in 2019
Rs 2 trillion
Global Participation
Nine partner countries
Over 30 participating countries
How
Attracting Global Majors
China Plus One strategy
Companies like Apple, Foxconn, Pegatron
Focus on Design
Majority value addition in design
VLSI programs in educational institutes
Who
Tamil Nadu Government
Chief Minister
M K Stalin
Key Attendees
Raghuram Rajan
Arvind Subramanian
Chris Miller
Anand Mahindra
Mark Widmar
Jeff Magioncalda
Goal
USD 1 trillion economy by 2031
Investment estimates
Manufacturing
USD 598 billion
Electricity, Gas, Water Supply
USD 430 billion
Agriculture
USD 396 billion
Significance
Exports increase
Goal of USD 8 billion in FY24
Contribution to India's exports
31% of India's total exports

Tamil Nadu’s Semiconductor and Advanced Electronics Policy is a strategic initiative set to be unveiled at the Global Investors’ Meet on January 7 and 8. The policy aims to boost Tamil Nadu’s status as a major electronics export hub in India, with a strong emphasis on semiconductor design and high-value electronics manufacturing. The government anticipates record investments and has plans for incentives and subsidies to attract firms. This policy is part of Tamil Nadu’s larger goal to become a USD 1 trillion economy by 2031, with substantial investments in various sectors.

Nano Urea mind map
Recent News
January 2024
PAU field study
Decrease in yields
Rice and wheat affected
Finance Ministry aims
Cut urea import bill
Reduced to Rs 21,000 crore
Plants expansion
Increase to 13 by 2025
Produce 44 crore bottles
When
Production started
August 1, 2021
Specifications notified
Under Fertilizer Control Order, 1985
Why
To reduce urea usage
Up to 50 percent reduction
Eco-friendly
Protects soil health
What
Nano Urea properties
Releases nutrients
Controlled manner
Higher nutrient efficiency
Cost-effective for farmers
Production capacity
44 Crore bottles
Equal to 195 LMT conventional urea
Government initiatives
Approval for manufacturing
By Zuari Farmhub and others
Where
India
Focus on domestic production
Who
Government of India
Promotes nano urea
Punjab Agricultural University
Conducted field study
Indian Farmers Fertiliser Cooperative
Produces nano urea
How
Nanotechnology-based fertilizers
Boost crop yields
Improve soil health
Significance
Cost savings
For government and farmers
Reduce foreign exchange
Save Rs 40,000 crore annually
Self-sufficiency in urea
Expected by 2025-26
Challenges
Field studies
Show decreased yields
Contrary to expectations
Way Forward
Address yield concerns
Modify application methods
Further research needed

Nano urea, a nanotechnology-based fertilizer, is an innovative product introduced in India to enhance agricultural productivity while being environmentally friendly. It is designed to release nutrients in a controlled manner, offering higher efficiency and cost-effectiveness compared to conventional urea. The Indian government has been promoting nano urea to reduce dependence on traditional fertilizers, aiming for self-sufficiency in urea production by 2025-26. Despite its benefits, recent field studies by Punjab Agricultural University have shown a decrease in crop yields (rice and wheat), posing a challenge to its efficacy. The government plans to expand production facilities and further research is needed to address these yield concerns.

/ Elections & Democracy
VVPAT mind map
Recent News
January 2024
EC dismisses concerns
By Jairam Ramesh
Assertions
Full faith in EVMs
BJP in Power
Till EVMs in current form used
Counting VVPAT Slips
INDIA Bloc demands
When
First Introduced
2014 general elections
Why
Voter verification
Ensures vote accuracy
What
Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail
Function
Prints slip with vote details
Duration
Slip visible for 7 seconds
Slip Storage
In sealed compartment
Use Cases
Corroborate EVM results
In special cases like vote fraud
Where
Used across India
Manufactured by
ECIL, BEL
Who
Involved Parties
Election Commission of India
Supreme Court
Directed increased VVPAT verification
How
Verification Protocol
Initially
One polling station per constituency
After 2019
Five polling stations per constituency
ISI Recommendation
Count slips from 479 EVMs
Significance
Ensures electoral integrity
Enhances voter confidence
Challenges
EC's Concerns
100% verification time-consuming
Prone to human error
Political Debate
Electoral integrity concerns
Way Forward
Balancing efficiency and voter confidence

Voter Verifiable Paper Audit Trail (VVPAT) is a system used in Indian elections to enhance the transparency and reliability of the voting process. Introduced in 2014, VVPAT machines print a slip with the voter’s choice, allowing them to verify their vote before the slip is securely stored. This mechanism serves to corroborate results from Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs), especially in cases of alleged vote fraud. Recently, there have been discussions and proposals for changes in VVPAT use, including a proposal for 100% counting of slips to enhance trust in elections. While the Election Commission of India maintains faith in the current protocol, which involves verifying VVPAT slips from five polling stations per constituency, there is an ongoing debate about electoral integrity and the challenges of balancing efficiency with voter confidence.

/ Women
Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act, 1956 mind map
Recent News
Kerala High Court Ruling
Charges brothel customers
Expands liability
When
Enacted
December 30, 1956
Amendments
1978, 1986
Why
Suppress immoral traffic
Combat human trafficking
Prevent commercial sexual exploitation
What
Definitions
Brothel
Various locations
For sexual exploitation
Prostitution
Exploitation or abuse for commercial gain
Special Police Officer (SPO)
Appointed by State Government
Powers
Arrest without warrant
Search premises without warrant
Mandatory medical examination
Magistrate
Wide powers
Rescuing individuals
Detention in protective homes
Punishments
Various offences
Brothel keeping
Living off earnings of prostitution
Procurement for prostitution
Custodial prostitution
Range of imprisonment and fines
Trial Procedures
Exclusive trial by magistrate
Speedy trial provisions
Protective Homes
Licensed under Section 21
Care and protection
Vocational training
Where
Extends to whole of India
Who
Governed by
Indian Penal Code
Constitution of India
Juvenile Justice Act
Significance
Addresses human trafficking
Focus on rehabilitation
Challenges
Emphasis on perpetrator
Not addressing victim's needs
Way Forward
Emphasis on victim protection
Legislative amendments

The Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act of 1956, commonly known as ITPA, is an Indian legislation initially enacted to combat the trafficking of women and children for the purpose of prostitution. This act, which aligns with international conventions, doesn’t criminalize prostitution per se but targets activities like brothel keeping, pimping, and procuring individuals for prostitution. With provisions for the rescue and rehabilitation of victims, the Act empowers special police officers and magistrates to enforce its provisions. However, it has faced criticism for focusing more on the perpetrators rather than adequately addressing the needs of the victims. Recent legal interpretations, such as the Kerala High Court’s decision to charge brothel customers, demonstrate evolving judicial attitudes towards this complex issue.

/ Diseases
India’s Alarming Cancer Burden - Lancet Study mind map
Recent News:
India's Cancer Statistics 2019:
12 lakh new cases
9.3 lakh deaths
Second-highest in Asia
Publication:
The Lancet Regional Health Southeast Asia journal
When:
Study period:
1990 to 2019
Latest data:
2019
Why:
Increasing cancer cases:
Industrial growth
Urbanisation
Migration
Motor vehicle usage
Risk Factors:
Smoking
Alcohol
Air pollution
Smokeless tobacco
What
Dominant cancers:
Tracheal, bronchus, lung
Cervical cancer in women
Risk reduction strategies:
Improved water and sanitation
Reduce Helicobacter pylori transmission
Screening and treatment:
Timely cancer screening
Treatment availability
Focus on cost-effectiveness
Coverage of treatment expenses
Where:
Comparison across:
49 Asian countries
India's global rank:
Lip and oral cavity cancer deaths: 32.9%
Lip and oral cavity new cases: 28.1%
Who:
Research Team:
International researchers
National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra
All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Affected population:
All age groups
Higher in older age groups
How:
Study methodology:
Comparative analysis
Cancer data from 49 countries
Significance:
Awareness:
Highlights urgent need for action
Policy guidance:
Provides data for health policies
Challenges:
Increasing burden:
Rising pollution levels
Lifestyle changes
Infrastructure challenges:
Limited oncologic infrastructure in low and medium-income countries
Way Forward:
Proposed actions:
Enhanced focus on prevention
Strengthen healthcare infrastructure

This mindmap outlines the key aspects of India’s alarming cancer burden as highlighted by a recent Lancet study. The study, which analyzed data from 1990 to 2019, reveals that India recorded approximately 1.2 million new cancer cases and 930,000 deaths in 2019, ranking second in Asia in terms of the cancer burden. The study sheds light on the dominant types of cancer, key risk factors, and the need for timely cancer screening and treatment, especially in low and medium-income countries. It also emphasizes the role of industrial growth, urbanization, migration, and motor vehicle usage in the rising cancer cases, highlighting the importance of addressing these factors to mitigate the increasing cancer burden.

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