Nano urea, a nanotechnology-based fertilizer, is an innovative product introduced in India to enhance agricultural productivity while being environmentally friendly. It is designed to release nutrients in a controlled manner, offering higher efficiency and cost-effectiveness compared to conventional urea. The Indian government has been promoting nano urea to reduce dependence on traditional fertilizers, aiming for self-sufficiency in urea production by 2025-26. Despite its benefits, recent field studies by Punjab Agricultural University have shown a decrease in crop yields (rice and wheat), posing a challenge to its efficacy. The government plans to expand production facilities and further research is needed to address these yield concerns.