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[Newsbits] 18.12.2023 – Ketamine, Akash Missile, Gene Drive, & more

newsbits mindmap notes

Ketamine mind map
News
Death of Matthew Perry
Date of Death
October 28
Found
In a jacuzzi
At Los Angeles home
Age at Death
54
Cause of Death
Acute effects of ketamine
Drowning
Heart disease
Additional Factors
Effects of buprenorphine
Used for opioid abuse treatment
Autopsy Findings
No alcohol or drugs like cocaine, heroin, fentanyl
Previous Ketamine Use
For anxiety and depression treatment
Stopped more than a week before death
Professional Career
Played Chandler Bing in Friends
Career Span
1994 to 2004
Co-stars
Jennifer Aniston
Courteney Cox
Lisa Kudrow
Matt LeBlanc
David Schwimmer
Personal Life
Struggle with alcohol, opiate addiction
Canadian-born
When
Death Occurred
October 28
News Reported
December 15 - 18
Why
Use of Ketamine
For depression and anxiety treatment
Previously used daily
Overdose
Accidental
Equivalent to general anesthesia dose
What
Ketamine
Sedative
Use in Medicine
For depression treatment
As general anesthesia
FDA Approval
Approved for depression
Mechanism
Acts on brain receptors
Rapid antidepressant action
Effects on neural circuits
Administration
Infusion therapy
Outpatient basis
Matthew Perry's Usage
In context of addiction and mental health
Stopped a week before death
Autopsy Report
Confirms overdose
No other substances found
Where
Los Angeles
Home of Matthew Perry
United States
FDA approval for ketamine treatment
Who
Matthew Perry
Actor
Known for Friends sitcom
Los Angeles County Medical Examiner
Conducted autopsy
FDA
Approved ketamine for depression
How
Ketamine Administration
Infusion therapy
Rapid action
Overdose Mechanism
Unknown method of intake
High quantity in system
Pros/Significance
Treatment for Depression
Fast-acting
Effective in resistant cases
Immediate symptom relief
Used globally
Popular in India
First Centre in Mumbai
Royal Consultancy, Bhiwandi
Patients from various regions
Cons
Risk of Overdose
Accidental overdoses possible
Requires careful monitoring
Addiction Potential
Use in addiction treatment
Risk of misuse
Way Forward
Improved Monitoring
For patients under ketamine therapy
Awareness
About risks and benefits of ketamine
Research
Into long-term effects
On spine formation and behavior correlation

Summary:- Matthew Perry, famed for his role in the sitcom “Friends,” tragically passed away on October 28, 2023, due to the acute effects of a ketamine overdose, which was compounded by drowning and heart disease. Ketamine, a sedative approved by the FDA for treating depression, acts rapidly on brain receptors and is effective in resistant cases. Perry had struggled with addiction and mental health issues, using ketamine to manage anxiety and depression. His death has brought attention to the potential risks and benefits of ketamine, emphasizing the need for careful monitoring and awareness regarding its use. Ketamine therapy is gaining popularity globally, including in India, where it offers immediate relief for depressive symptoms, especially in drug-resistant cases.

UNSC Veto Power & Gaza Ceasefire mind map
December 2023 News
UNSC Resolution on Gaza
Proposal
By United Arab Emirates
Co-sponsorship
From 97 Member States
Within 24 hours
Focus
Immediate humanitarian ceasefire
Release of all hostages
Ensuring humanitarian access
Support
13 Council members
Including China, France, Russia
Veto
By United States
Date
9 December 2023
Reasons for Veto
Unbalanced resolution
Ignored US recommendations
Failed to condemn Hamas' terrorist attacks
Overlooked Israel's right to self-defence
Reaction
Global disappointment
Criticism of US decision
Highlighting need for ceasefire
General Assembly Action
Resolution Adoption
Title
"Protection of civilians and upholding legal and humanitarian obligations"
Vote Outcome
153 in favour
10 against
23 abstentions
Failed Amendments
Austria's amendment
US's amendment
Key Points
Immediate ceasefire
Compliance with international law
Release of hostages
Humanitarian access
International Response
Support from Arab Group
Criticism from Israel
Advocacy by Pakistan, Syria, Tunisia
UNSC Veto Power
Origin
In Article 27 of the United Nations Charter
Scope
Applies to substantive resolutions
Does not prevent adoption if abstained or absent
Controversy
Seen as undemocratic
Hinders action on war crimes
Reforms Proposed
Limiting veto to vital issues
Requiring multiple states' agreement
Possible abolition
Context of Gaza Ceasefire
Conflict Duration
Over 63 days
Casualties
More than 18,000 people
International Law
Obligations under humanitarian law
Protection of civilians
Diplomatic Efforts
By various countries
Aimed at ending hostilities
Humanitarian Situation
Catastrophic conditions in Gaza
Need for immediate relief
Way Forward
Enhanced Diplomacy
Need for effective negotiating process
Engaging all Member States
Humanitarian Focus
Prioritizing civilian protection
Ensuring consistent humanitarian aid
Accountability
Addressing violations of international law
Holding aggressors accountable

Summary:- The recent news about the veto power in the UNSC related to the Gaza ceasefire highlights the complexities of international diplomacy and decision-making within the United Nations. A resolution proposed by the United Arab Emirates, co-sponsored by 97 Member States, called for an immediate humanitarian ceasefire in Gaza. However, it was vetoed by the United States in the UNSC, citing reasons such as the resolution’s failure to condemn Hamas’ terrorist attacks and to recognize Israel’s right to self-defense. This veto led to significant global disappointment and criticism. In response, the UN General Assembly adopted a resolution demanding an immediate ceasefire and compliance with international law. The situation underscores ongoing debates about the UNSC’s veto power, its implications for global peace and security, and the need for more inclusive and effective diplomatic processes.

Akash Missile System mind map
December 2023 News
Astrashakti military exercise
India first to engage four targets
Range of 25 kilometers
When
Development began in 1983
First trial firings in 1990
Inducted in Indian Air Force in 2014
Inducted in Indian Army in 2015
Why
Protect vulnerable areas
Defense against air attacks
What
Medium-range mobile SAM
Surface to Air Missile
Range up to 30 kilometers
Targets aircraft, UAVs, missiles
Where
India
Export interests globally
Who
Developed by DRDO
Defence Research and Development Organisation
Produced by BDL
Bharat Dynamics Limited
BEL, Tata Power SED, L&T involved
Bharat Electronics Limited
Strategic Engineering Division
Larsen & Toubro
How
Command guidance system
Mobile launch platforms
ECCM features
Electronic Counter-Countermeasures
Multiple target engagement
Pros/Significance
Indigenous technology
Cost-effective adaptation
Export potential
Multi-target capability
Challenges
Radar, control units, sensor issues
43% failure rate in tests
Quality concerns
Trust issues during war
Way Forward
Address technical challenges
Enhance reliability
Expand export success

Summary:- The Akash missile system is a medium-range mobile surface-to-air missile developed by India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and produced by Bharat Dynamics Limited (BDL). It is designed to protect vulnerable areas from air attacks by targeting aircraft, UAVs, and missiles up to 30 km away. The system has been inducted into the Indian Air Force and the Indian Army and has shown export potential. Recently, during the Astrashakti military exercise, India demonstrated the capability of the Akash system to engage four aerial targets simultaneously at a range of 25 kilometers, marking a global first. However, the system has faced challenges, including issues with radar, electronic control units, and sensors, and a significant failure rate during tests. The way forward includes addressing these technical challenges to enhance reliability and expand its success in exports.

/ Biotechnology
Gene drive technology mind map
December 2023 News
African scientists
Developing gene drive technology
Genetically modify mosquitoes
Eradicate malaria
"Game-changer" for malaria control
By 2025
Researchers
Created new system
Safer gene drive testing
Development
Convert split gene drives
Into full drives
More experimentation flexibility
When
Genetics to control mosquito populations
Over 80 years old
Gene drives proposed
In 2003
By Austin Burt
Professor at Imperial College London
CRISPR gene drives proposed
In a 2014 paper
Combining gene drive
With CRISPR gene editing
Why
Control diseases
Like malaria
Suppressing mosquito populations
Conservation efforts
Controlling invasive species
Protecting endangered species
Basic research questions
In genetics
Evolution
Ecology
What Full Provisions
Gene drives
Genetic elements
Rapidly spread through populations
Increasing inheritance chance
Work by cutting DNA
At targeted sequence
Trigger cell's repair mechanism
Copy gene drive
Onto both chromosomes
Ensures nearly 100% inheritance
Rapid spread
Through populations
Over generations
CRISPR gene editing
Made construction easier
Compared to earlier techniques
No gene drive mosquitoes
Released in India
Or elsewhere yet
India has guidelines
For testing genetically engineered insects
Does not specifically regulate gene drives
Where
Gene drive research and development
In the USA
Europe
Africa
Australia
Proposed release locations
In Africa for malaria
Elsewhere for invasive species
Who
Key organizations
Target Malaria
Gene Drive Network
Foundation for the National Institutes of Health
Key scientists
Andrea Crisanti
Imperial College London
Abdoulaye Diabate
IRSS Burkina Faso
How
Gene drives spread
Through populations
When organisms mate
Pass on genetic material
Gene drive mechanisms
Ensure inherited more frequently
Than normal Mendelian inheritance
Over generations
Gene drive becomes prevalent
Throughout the population
Significance
Highly effective
Sustainable
Cost-effective method
For disease control
Avoid environmental impacts
Of insecticides
Other control methods
Flexible technology
Applications for human health
Conservation
Agriculture
Challenges
Ecological risks
Unintended species extinction
Lack of reversibility
If undesired effects occur
Difficult to regulate
Across country borders
Public skepticism
Ethical concerns
About genetic engineering
Way Forward
Careful risk assessment
Before any environmental release
Engage local communities
In decision-making
Build capacity
For regulating gene drives
Internationally
Increase public awareness
Trust through outreach

Summary: Gene drive technology is a method of genetic engineering that allows specific genes to spread rapidly through a population. This technology, which can override natural selection, is made possible by the gene editing tool CRISPR-Cas9. Gene drives can be used to control disease-carrying insects like mosquitoes, potentially eradicating diseases like malaria. However, the technology also poses significant ecological risks, including the possibility of unintended species extinction. Therefore, it’s crucial to conduct thorough testing and risk assessment before deploying gene drives. Additionally, public engagement and clear regulation are necessary to address ethical concerns and skepticism about genetic engineering. As of December 2023, gene drive research and development are ongoing in various parts of the world, including the USA, Europe, Africa, and Australia

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