India-Japan Tech Diplomacy- How Can it be Improved?

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In July 2023, India and Japan embarked on a collaborative journey targeting the semiconductor ecosystem. This partnership was designed to foster a robust supply chain for critical technological advancements and to spearhead joint endeavours in the realm of semiconductors.

This topic of “India-Japan Tech Diplomacy- How Can it be Improved?” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination, which falls under General Studies Portion.

Areas of Focus

Semiconductor Design & Manufacturing

  • India and Japan are collaborating on:
    • Advanced chip designs.
    • Manufacturing processes tailored for new-age electronics.

Equipment Research

  • Research on the latest semiconductor equipment.
  • Exploration of innovative production tools and methodologies.

Resilience in the Semiconductor Supply Chain

  • Aims to build a robust supply chain that can withstand global shocks.
  • Ensures a constant and unobstructed flow of essential semiconductor products.

Talent Development      

  • Emphasis on human resource development.
  • Skill exchange programs, workshops, and intensive training sessions.

Policy Alignment

  • India’s “Make in India” initiative: Focused on boosting domestic manufacturing and technology.
  • Japan’s “Society 5.0” vision: Prioritizes technological self-reliance and growth driven by innovation.
  • The partnership underscores:
    • Technology transfers.
    • Bilateral agreements for mutual growth in semiconductor research and related product trades.

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Strategic Alliances & Technological Synergy

  • Recognizing the importance of semiconductors in:
    • Driving innovation.
    • Economic development.
    • National security considerations.
  • Convergence of Japan’s manufacturing prowess and India’s burgeoning IT demand creates a platform for beneficial collaboration.

Addressing Geopolitical Concerns

  • Emphasis on diversifying semiconductor supply chains due to disruptions and geopolitical tensions.
  • Importance of cross-country collaboration in the Indo-Pacific region.

The American Angle

Previous Partnerships

  • India’s alignment with industry leaders is evident in its technology partnership with the U.S.
  • Focus areas include investment, innovation, and workforce development.

Educational Collaboration

  • An agreement is in the pipeline between New Delhi and Georgia Tech University.

Private Sector Investments

  • Investments from companies like Micron Technology and Applied Materials play a pivotal role in India’s semiconductor landscape.

Geostrategic Implications

  • U.S.’s CHIPS and Science Act of 2022 strategically curbs semiconductor manufacturing expansion in certain nations, including China.
  • Both Japan and the U.S. have signed bilateral agreements with India, emphasizing the strategic alignment of these nations in the Indo-Pacific.
  • In January 2023, countries like Japan and the Netherlands followed the U.S. in imposing export controls on semiconductor manufacturing materials to China, signifying global concerns over China’s rapidly expanding chip-making capabilities.

The Quad Perspective

  • The collaboration highlights the growing confidence in India by Quad countries.
  • Signifies India’s evolving capabilities in semiconductor technologies.
  • Envisions a combined force of Japan’s tech superiority and India’s innovation strengths.

Way Forward

The ongoing partnership between India and Japan promises a dynamic future for the semiconductor industry. As technology continually evolves, collaborations will address:

  • Semiconductor miniaturization challenges.
  • Integration of Artificial Intelligence.
  • Delving into quantum computing realms.

Collaborations like these will undoubtedly reshape the global technological landscape, impacting geopolitical partnerships and signaling a new dawn for the Indo-Pacific region.


The collaboration between India and Japan in 2023 marks a transformative phase in the semiconductor industry. By merging their strengths and visions, both nations are paving the path towards a future characterized by advanced electronics, heightened connectivity, and a shared zeal for technological brilliance.

Practice Question for Mains

Discuss the state of India-Japan tech diplomacy. How can it be strengthened going forward? (250 words)

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