Tilapia Parvovirus

In recent news, India has reported its first case of Tilapia Parvovirus (TiPV) in the state of Tamil Nadu.

This topic of “Tilapia Parvovirus” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination, which falls under General Studies Portion.

TiPV: What You Need to Know

What is TiPV?

  • TiPV is a virus that infects tilapia fish.
  • It is characterized by being a single-stranded DNA virus and is unenveloped.
  • The virus can be detected in various fish tissues, including the spleen, liver, kidney, brain, and mucus.

Significance of TiPV

High Mortality Rate

  • TiPV is associated with a high mortality rate among tilapia fish.
  • In farms, the mortality rate can range from 30% to 50%, while in laboratory conditions, it can reach 100%.

Global Reports

  • India’s recent report of TiPV marks it as the third country to report the occurrence of this virus.
  • The virus was first reported in China in 2019 and in Thailand in 2021.

Where TiPV has Been Reported Previously

Previous Reports

  • The initial report of TiPV occurred in China in 2019, signaling its emergence.
  • Thailand reported the virus in 2021, indicating its spread beyond China.

Facts About Tilapia Fish Types and Farming in India

Tilapia Fish Types

  1. Mozambique Tilapia (Jilabi in Tamil)
    • Often referred to as the “poor-man’s fish.”
    • Exhibits high survival rates in low-oxygen water levels.
    • An invasive species across India.
    • Introduced in India in the 1950s.
  2. Nile Tilapia
    • Larger in size compared to Mozambique tilapia.
    • Commands a market rate ranging from ₹100 to ₹150 per kg.
    • Introduced in India in the 1970s, with only authorized imports by the Indian government, including Oreochromis niloticus and red hybrids.
    • Chosen for its fast growth and high market demand.

Tilapia Farming in India

  • Tilapia farming is primarily conducted in states like Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
  • Tilapia is sold as whole fish in domestic markets.
  • In 2022, the estimated production of tilapia in India was 70,000 tonnes, with 30,000 tonnes coming from aquaculture.

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