Tilapia Parvovirus

In recent news, India has reported its first case of Tilapia Parvovirus (TiPV) in the state of Tamil Nadu.

TiPV: What You Need to Know

What is TiPV?

  • TiPV is a virus that infects tilapia fish.
  • It is characterized by being a single-stranded DNA virus and is unenveloped.
  • The virus can be detected in various fish tissues, including the spleen, liver, kidney, brain, and mucus.

Significance of TiPV

High Mortality Rate

  • TiPV is associated with a high mortality rate among tilapia fish.
  • In farms, the mortality rate can range from 30% to 50%, while in laboratory conditions, it can reach 100%.

Global Reports

  • India’s recent report of TiPV marks it as the third country to report the occurrence of this virus.
  • The virus was first reported in China in 2019 and in Thailand in 2021.

Where TiPV has Been Reported Previously

Previous Reports

  • The initial report of TiPV occurred in China in 2019, signaling its emergence.
  • Thailand reported the virus in 2021, indicating its spread beyond China.

Facts About Tilapia Fish Types and Farming in India

Tilapia Fish Types

  1. Mozambique Tilapia (Jilabi in Tamil)
    • Often referred to as the “poor-man’s fish.”
    • Exhibits high survival rates in low-oxygen water levels.
    • An invasive species across India.
    • Introduced in India in the 1950s. copyright©iasexpress.net
  2. Nile Tilapia
    • Larger in size compared to Mozambique tilapia.
    • Commands a market rate ranging from ₹100 to ₹150 per kg.
    • Introduced in India in the 1970s, with only authorized imports by the Indian government, including Oreochromis niloticus and red hybrids.
    • Chosen for its fast growth and high market demand.

Tilapia Farming in India

  • Tilapia farming is primarily conducted in states like Andhra Pradesh and Kerala.
  • Tilapia is sold as whole fish in domestic markets.
  • In 2022, the estimated production of tilapia in India was 70,000 tonnes, with 30,000 tonnes coming from aquaculture.

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