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Small Modular Reactors (SMRs)

Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) upsc notes
1. Definition and advantages
Advanced nuclear reactors
Capacity up to 300 MW
Simplicity, safety, cost-effectiveness
Factory-made, transportable
Economical, time-efficient
Longer refueling intervals
2. India's nuclear power status
22 nuclear reactors
7 power plants
6780 MW nuclear power
Goal: 10% nuclear power by 2035
3. Global status of SMRs
70+ SMR designs
17 countries
Examples
NuScale Power (U.S.)
Akademik Lomonosov (Russia)
Rolls-Royce (U.K.)
4. India's need for more nuclear power
Limited hydropower growth potential
Coal capacity: 210 GW, 73% electricity
Environmental concerns
Intermittent wind and solar power
5. India's strategy
Transition to SMRs
Public-private partnerships
Raise nuclear power to 10% by 2035
6. Niti Aayog's suggestions
Encourage private sector participation
Implement regulatory changes for safety
Modify foreign investment policies
7. Way ahead for India
Move towards passive safety designs
Enforce nuclear liability
End NPCIL monopoly in reactor operations
8. Conclusion
Achieve net zero by 2070
Need 100 GW nuclear power by 2050
Portfolio of technologies, including SMRs
Safe and cost-effective nuclear power

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