Kakrapar Atomic Power Project

In a recent development, the third unit of the Kakrapar Atomic Power Project (KAPP3) is now operating at full capacity. This achievement is a significant step towards India’s ambitious nuclear power goals.

Unveiling KAPP: Third Unit at Full Capacity

Unit Capacity

  • The third unit of KAPP, known as KAPP3, has a capacity of 700 MWe (MegaWatt electrical).

The Significance of KAPP3

Indigenous Development

  • KAPP3 is the largest variant of the Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) design.
  • It surpasses the previous largest reactor, a 540 MWe PHWR in Tarapur, Maharashtra.

Operationalization Importance

  • KAPP3 is India’s first 700 MWe reactor, showcasing a significant technology scale-up.
  • The PHWR design has been optimized for the 700 MWe unit, addressing excess thermal margins and benefiting from economies of scale.

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Safety Features and Advantages

PHWR Technology

  • PHWR technology boasts a high safety score.
  • Notably, it employs thin-walled pressure tubes instead of large pressure vessels, mitigating the consequences of accidental ruptures.

Enhanced Safety Design

  • The 700 MWe PHWR design incorporates a ‘Passive Decay Heat Removal System.’
  • This system removes decay heat without operator intervention, akin to technology used in Generation III+ plants, aiming to prevent incidents similar to Fukushima.

Structural Safety Measures

  • Steel-lined containment reduces leakages.
  • A containment spray system reduces containment pressure during coolant loss scenarios. copyright©iasexpress.net

The Journey of KAPP: Financing and Execution

Capital Investment

  • The project is financed with a 70:30 debt-to-equity ratio.
  • Equity partners include the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL).

Execution Partner

  • The reactor building contract for KAPP Units 3 and 4 was awarded to Larsen & Toubro at a contract value of Rs 844 crore.

KAPP’s Timeline and Location


  • KAPP-3 achieved its first criticality in July 2020.
  • The first ‘pour of concrete’ for KAPP-3 took place in November 2010.


  • KAPP is situated in the state of Gujarat, India.

India’s Nuclear Power Vision

Current and Target Capacity

  • India’s current nuclear power capacity stands at 7,480 MWe.
  • The country aims to achieve a capacity of 22,480 MWe by 2031.

Global Nuclear Contribution

  • India’s current nuclear capacity contributes 2 percent to the global power generation capacity of 4,17,668 MW.


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