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[Newsbits] 30.12.2023: Perovskite Solar Cells, Mengxiang, ICJS & more

newsbits mindmap notes

/ China, Geography
Mengxiang mind map
Recent News
Unveiled as China's first ocean drilling vessel
Mission to drill through Earth's crust
When
Maiden voyage on December 22, 2023
Why
To explore Earth's upper mantle
Open new research doors
What
ocean drilling vessel
High stability and strength
Operates worldwide
Drilling depth
Up to 11,000 meters
Trial voyage
500 nautical miles
Verified 19 key marine systems
How
Length
179.8 meters
Width
32.8 meters
Displacement
33,000 metric tons
Travel capability
15,000 nautical miles
Sustains 120 days without port return
Wind resistance
Up to 16 grades
Where
Global operation capability
Who
Developed by China
China Geological Survey
Ministry of Natural Resources
Pros
First exploration of upper mantle
Advances in Earth science research

The Mengxiang is China’s first ocean drilling vessel, recently unveiled with the groundbreaking mission to drill through the Earth’s crust. This ship, set to commence its maiden voyage on December 22, 2023, aims to explore the upper mantle, marking humanity’s first foray into this uncharted territory. The vessel boasts impressive specifications: it measures 179.8 meters in length, 32.8 meters in width, and can operate in any sea globally. With the ability to drill up to 11,000 meters deep and sustain 120 days at sea without needing to return to port, the Mengxiang stands as a symbol of significant advancement in Earth science research and oceanic exploration.

/ Judiciary/Justice
mind map

The Inter-Operable Criminal Justice System (ICJS) in India is a transformative project aiming to integrate the key components of the criminal justice system, including police, courts, forensic labs, and prisons, into a unified digital platform. This initiative, overseen by the Ministry of Home Affairs and the National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), is designed to streamline processes, improve information sharing, and enhance the speed and accuracy of judicial procedures. The system operates on the principle of ‘one data one entry’, ensuring that data entered once is accessible across various departments, reducing redundancy and errors. While ICJS promises to significantly improve the functioning of the criminal justice system, it also faces challenges related to privacy, potential mass surveillance, and the risk of disproportionate impact on vulnerable communities. Despite these concerns, ICJS is seen as a crucial step towards a more efficient and effective criminal justice system in India.

Marine Energy Conversion Systems mind map
Recent News
Indian Standards Establishment
Date
December 29, 2023
Organization
Bureau of Indian Standards
Goal
Promote standardisation
Enhance quality
When
Historical Context
Stephen Salter's Project
Year
1974
Why
Need for Renewable Energy
Due to
Environmental concerns
Depleting fossil resources
What
Types of Marine Energy
From Water Movement
Waves
Tides
River currents
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion
Technologies
Wave Energy Converters
Example
Buoys
Tidal Turbines
Who
Key Organizations
Bureau of Indian Standards
National Renewable Energy Laboratory
How
Energy Harnessing
Using Kinetic Energy
Waves, currents, tides
Thermal Energy Conversion
Deep cold water to surface
Significance
Renewable Source
Continuous availability
Environmentally Friendly
Less carbon footprint
Accessibility
Near coastal areas
High Energy Potential
Up to 100 kW/m in deep waters
Challenges
Environmental Impact
Marine ecosystem disturbance
High Costs
Infrastructure development
Maintenance
Location-Dependent
Suitable for coastal areas only
Technological Challenges
Durability against harsh conditions
Way Forward
NREL's New Design
Variable-Geometry
Adaptive to wave intensity
Raised Foundation
Avoids seabed obstacles
Greater power production
Industry Adaptation
Moving from theory to practice
Wider deployment

Marine energy conversion systems harness renewable power from the natural movement of water, including waves, tides, and currents, as well as from temperature differences in water through ocean thermal energy conversion. Recent advancements include the establishment of a technical committee in India to promote standardization in this field. Marine energy has several advantages, including being a renewable source, environmentally friendly, accessible near coastal areas, and having high energy potential. However, it faces challenges such as potential environmental impact, high costs, location dependency, and technological hurdles in durability. The way forward includes innovative designs like the variable-geometry, oscillating, surge wave energy converter developed by NREL, which is more adaptable and cost-effective, and initiatives for wider deployment in the industry.

Perovskite Solar Cells mind map
Recent News
Inverted Cell Breaks Record
25% Efficiency
Northwestern University Research
Lead-Free Cell by NIT Silchar
31.57% Efficiency
Formamidinium Tin Iodide
Bifacial Cells for Indoors
30.3% Efficiency
Under LED Light
Tandem Perovskite-Silicon
28.4% Efficiency
By CEA-INES, Enel
When
Records in 2023
Why
High Efficiency
Lower Cost
Flexible Manufacturing
What
Solar Cells
Perovskite-Structured Compound
Lead or Tin Halide-Based
Efficiency Growth
3.8% in 2009 to 25.7% in 2021
Manufacturing
Cheaper
Simpler Process
How
Photovoltaic Effect
Electrons Excited by Photons
Electron-Hole Pair Creation
Layer Structure
Perovskite Active Layer
Multiple Layer Cells
Indian Context
NIT Silchar Research
Lead-Free Perovskite Cell
High Efficiency
Bifacial Cells
Suitable for Indoors
High Efficiency
Where
Global Development
Northwestern University, USA
CEA-INES, Enel, Europe
Indian Development
NIT Silchar, Assam
Who
Researchers
Ted Sargent
Teams at Northwestern, EPFL
Organizations
Northwestern University
EPFL
NIT Silchar
Pros
High Efficiency
Over 25%
Low Cost
Cheaper than Silicon Cells
Flexibility in Manufacturing
Various Techniques
Cons
Stability Issues
Deterioration Under Light and Heat
Material Concerns
Use of Toxic Lead
Environmental Impact
Way Forward
Stability Improvement
Encapsulation Techniques
Composition Fine-Tuning
Tandem Cell Development
Combining with Silicon
Higher Efficiency Potential

Perovskite Solar Cells (PSCs) are an emerging technology in the field of photovoltaics, characterized by their use of a perovskite-structured compound, usually a hybrid organic-inorganic lead or tin halide-based material, as the light-harvesting active layer. Recent advancements have seen these cells achieve record-breaking efficiencies, surpassing 25%, making them a highly promising alternative to traditional silicon-based solar cells. Researchers worldwide, including those in India, are actively developing more efficient and stable PSCs. The primary advantages of PSCs include their high efficiency, lower production costs, and simpler manufacturing processes compared to silicon solar cells. However, challenges remain in terms of their long-term stability and the use of toxic materials like lead. The future of PSCs looks promising with ongoing research aimed at overcoming these challenges, particularly through the development of tandem cells that combine perovskite and silicon layers for even higher efficiency.

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