[Newsbits] 28.06.2023

newsbits mindmap notes

Digital Publisher Content Grievances Council (DPCGC)

Digital Publisher Content Grievances Council (DPCGC) upsc notes
    Recommends punitive action for OTT platform ULLU
  About DPCGC
    Independent self-regulatory body for OCCPs
    OCC Platforms: Online video-on-demand platforms
      Operating in India: Amazon Prime, Netflix, Hotstar, Zee5, etc.
    Established in 2021
    Set up under the aegis of IAMAI
    IAMAI: Represents interests of online and mobile value-added services industry
    Objective: balance between addressing viewer complaints and showcasing content in free-speech environment
    Ministry: Ministry of Information & Broadcasting
    Current Head: A K Sikri, retired Supreme Court Judge
  Functions of DPCGC
    Ensure alignment and adherence to Code of Ethics
    Provide guidance on Code of Ethics
    Address grievances unresolved within 15 days
    Hear grievances/appeals by complainants

United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA)

United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA) upsc notes
    Indian-origin British satellite expert appointed as director
    Aarti Holla-Maini appointed as director
    Indian-origin British satellite industry expert
    Appointed by UN secretary general
      Bachelor’s degree in law with German law, King’s College London
      Master’s degree in business administration, HEC Paris
      18 years as secretary-general, Global Satellite Operators Association
      25 years in aerospace industry
      Role of executive vice-president, sustainability, policy and impact, NorthStar Earth & Space
  About UNOOSA
    Established in 1958
    HQ: Vienna, Austria
    Objective: help all countries leverage benefits of space for sustainable development
  Structure of UNOOSA
    Headed by a director
    Five sections
      Office of the Director (OD)
        Coordinates strategic direction and operational priorities
      Committee, Policy and Legal Affairs Section (CPLA)
        Provides substantive, secretariat, organisational and administrative support
      Space Applications Section (SAS)
        Implements UN Programme on Space Applications
      UN Platform for Space-Based Information for Disaster Management and Emergency Response (UN-SPIDER)
        Leverages space data for disaster risk reduction
      Executive Secretariat of International Committee on GNSS (ICG)
        Brings together all GNSS providers
  Functions of UNOOSA
    Helps build capacity in space sector
    Use of space data for disaster management
    Increase understanding of international space law
    Supports transparency in space activities
    Promotes sustainable development through space
    Devises solutions for international space challenges

Provident Fund (PF)

Provident Fund (PF)
    EPFO extends deadline for higher PF application
  Provident Fund (PF) details
    Fixed money contributed by employees until retirement
    Provides lump sum or monthly payments at retirement
    Regulator: EPFO in India
    Benefits of PF
      Investment opportunity at retirement
      Aids in personal and financial needs
  Types of Provident Funds
    Employees Provident Fund (EPF)
      Most popular in India
      Applicable to businesses with more than 20 employees
      Employee and employer contributions
      EPF benefits
        High interest rates
        Employer matches employee contribution
        Lump sum on retirement
        Partial withdrawals allowed
      Maturity on retirement
      Tax-free if employed over 5 years
    Public Provident Fund (PPF)
      Savings scheme available to all Indians
      Eligibility: Any resident of India
      Deposit range: ₹500 - ₹1.5 lacs per year
      Tax-free on maturity
      Different from EPF
        PPF: Savings scheme
        EPF: Offers pension benefits
    General Provident Fund (GPF)
      Also known as Statutory Provident Fund
      Available only for government servants
      Eligibility: Permanent employees, re-employed pensioners, temporary employees (with 1 year service)
      6% of monthly salary contributed to GPF
      Interest rate between 7-8%
    Established in 1952
    Ministry of Labour & Employment
    Based in New Delhi
    Manages PF and pension accounts of member employees
    Implements Employees’ Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952

Congo Rainforest

Congo Rainforest upsc notes
    Congo rainforest loss
    Half a million hectares lost in 2022
  Key Findings
    Congo rainforest loss details
      500,000 hectares lost in 2022
    Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) loss
      Over 500,000 hectares in 2022
    Global tropical primary forest loss
      4.1 mha worldwide in 2022
      Major contributing countries
        Brazil: 43%
        DRC: 12.1%
      CO2 generation
        2.7 billion tonnes from forest destruction
      Decrease in DRC humid primary forest
        Reduced by 6.1%
    Primary forests
        Forests of native tree species
        No clearly visible human activities
      Primary forest loss details
        Mostly small clearings
        Near cyclical agricultural areas
    Cyclical agricultural areas
        Land cleared for short-term cultivation
        Cleared using slash-and-burn techniques
        Left fallow for regeneration
    Economic factors and deforestation
      Dependence on forests for food, energy
      Challenge in reducing primary forest loss
    Drivers of forest loss
      Slash-and-burn agriculture
      Uncontrolled bushfires
      Charcoal production
        Dominant form of energy
        Generated by cutting and burning timber
      Cattle ranching
      Illegal (artisanal) logging
  About Congo Rainforest
    World's second-largest rainforest
    Bordering countries
      Central African Republic
      Republic of Congo
      Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)
      Equatorial Guinea
      Tropical climate year-round
      Heavy precipitation
      High humidity and temperatures
    Flora and fauna
      10,000 tropical plants (30% unique)
      400 mammal species
      Over 600 tree species
      10,000 animal species
      1,000 bird species
      700 fish species
      Includes endangered wildlife
        Forest elephants
    Economic significance
      Provides food, medicine, water, materials, shelter for over 75 million people
    Human inhabitants
      Over 150 ethnic groups for over 50,000 years
      Includes groups like Ba'Aka, BaKa, BaMbuti, Efe
        Often referred to as Pygmies
          Adult males less than 59 inches in average height
          Rely on hunting, gathering for survival in rainforest

Chennaic-Vladivostok maritime route

Chennaic Vladivostok maritime route upsc notes
  India-Russia collaboration
    Source: HBL
    Establish Chennai-Vladivostok maritime route
  Expected benefits
    Reduce transport time from 32 to 12 days
    Reduce costs by around 30%
  Route details
    Passes through Sea of Japan
    Passes through South China Sea
    Passes through Malacca Strait


Greenwashing upsc notes
    Global norms introduced to combat greenwashing
    Pressure on companies to disclose impact on climate change
  What is Greenwashing
    Misleading consumers
      About environmental benefits of a product or service
      Through deceptive promotion and advertising
    Risks associated with Greenwashing
      Misleads consumers
      Diminishes trust in environmental claims
      Prevents necessary behavioural change for environmental protection
    Measures to prevent Greenwashing
      Legislation, regulation, and enforcement
        Mandate transparency and punish deceptive practices
        For consumers about misleading marketing tactics
        Use of third-party verification for environmental claims

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes upsc notes
    Article about evolution from prokaryotes to eukaryotes
    Origin of prokaryotes
      Simple organisms
      No nucleus
    Development of eukaryotes
      Evolved from prokaryotes
      Introduction of mitochondria
      Packaging of DNA into nucleus
    Origin of mitochondria and chloroplasts
      Came from free-living bacteria
      Engulfed by ancient Archaea organism
      Mutually beneficial relationship formed over time
      Led to development of animals, fungi, plants
    Evolutionary process
      Various changes in structure, functions
  Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
      Absent in prokaryotes
      Present in eukaryotes
      Circular in prokaryotes
      Linear in eukaryotes
    Membrane-bound organelles
      Absent in prokaryotes
      Present in eukaryotes (e.g., mitochondria, chloroplasts)
      Smaller in prokaryotes
      Larger in eukaryotes
      Asexual (mostly) in prokaryotes
      Sexual and asexual in eukaryotes
      Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes
      Plants, animals, fungi, protists are eukaryotes

Road Networks in India

Road Networks in India upsc notes
    India has second-largest road network in world
      After the US
  More about Road Network in India
    Increase in Road Network
      From 91,287 km in 2013-14
      To 1,45,240 km in 2022-23
    Total length of expressways
      4,219 km
    Increase of about 59% in last nine years
    Toll revenue rose
      From Rs 4,770 crore in 2013-14
      To Rs 41,342 crore in 2022-23
        Aim to increase to Rs 1,30,000 crore by 2030
    Waiting time at toll plazas reduced
      From 734 seconds in 2014
      To 47 seconds in 2023
        Goal to further reduce to 30 seconds
    At 1.94 km of roads per square kilometre of land
      Quantitative density of India’s road network
        Equal to that of Hong Kong
        Substantially higher than the United States
  Difference between Expressways, National and State Highways
      Central government owns Expressways
      NHAI owns National Highways
      States own State Highways
      High-speed traffic for Expressways
      National connectivity for National Highways
      Intra-state connectivity for State Highways
      Designated with an ‘E’ prefix for Expressways
      Designated with an ‘NH’ prefix for National Highways
      Designated with an ‘SH’ prefix for State Highways
      Limited access points for Expressways
      Fewer access points than local roads for National Highways
      Multiple access points for State Highways
    Width of Roadway
      Generally wider for Expressways
      Wide carriageways for National Highways
      Varies depending on state policy for State Highways
      Controlled-access highways with grade-separated intersections for Expressways
      To meet national transportation needs for National Highways
      To meet state transportation needs for State Highways
    Planning Authority
      Generally Central Government for Expressways
      National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) for National Highways
      State Public Works Departments for State Highways

New CSR guidelines ‘Sagar Samajik Sahayog’

New CSR guidelines ‘Sagar Samajik Sahayog’ upsc notes
    Union Minister of Ports, Shipping & Waterways and Ayush
      Launched new guidelines for CSR
  About the guidelines
    Empower ports to directly undertake CSR
    Ports with turnover
      Less than ₹100 crores
        Spend 3-5% on CSR
      Less than ₹500 crores
        Spend 2-3% on CSR
      More than ₹500 crores
        Spend 0.5-2% on CSR
    Priority Areas
      Sainik Kalyan Board
      National Maritime Heritage Complex
      National Youth Development Fund
      Various social and environmental welfare programs
    Implementation and monitoring of CSR
      By a Corporate Social Responsibility Committee
        In each major port
  Major ports in India
    13 major ports and 205 notified minor and intermediate ports
    List of Major ports
      Kochi Port in Kerala
      Ennore Port in Tamil Nadu
      Haldia Port in West Bengal
      Kolkata Port in West Bengal
      Kandla Port in Gujarat
      Mangalore Port in Karnataka
      Marmagoa in Goa
      Mumbai Port in Maharashtra
      Jawaharlal Nehru Port in Maharashtra
      Paradip Port in Odisha
      Tuticorin Port in Tamil Nadu
      Vishakhapatnam Port in Andhra Pradesh
      Chennai Port in Tamil Nadu

Aadhaar authentication for registration for births and deaths

Aadhaar authentication for registration for births and deaths upsc notes
  Source: TH
    Office of Registrar General of India (RGI) permission
      Perform Aadhaar authentication
        During registration of births and deaths
    Aadhaar not mandatory for registration
    RGI can authenticate Aadhaar numbers
      Verify identity of individuals
    State governments and Union Territories
      Adhere to MEiTY’s guidelines
  Aadhaar Authentication (AA)
    Verifies identity using Aadhaar number
      Used for availing government services and schemes
    Entities allowed to perform AA
      Government ministries and departments
      Some private entities like banks and telecom companies
        Only if UIDAI is satisfied with standards of privacy and security
    Purpose of AA
      Good governance
      Preventing leakage of public funds
      Enablement of innovation
      Spread of knowledge
      Promote ease of living
      Enable better access to services for residents
    Legal provision
      Aadhaar Authentication for Good Governance Rules, 2020
    Supreme Court (2018)
      struck down Section 57 of the Aadhaar Act
        Allowed use of Aadhaar data by private companies
        Deemed “unconstitutional” for establishing identity
  Aadhaar number
    12-digit unique identity number
    Issued by UIDAI
    On behalf of Government of India
    Based on individual’s biometric and demographic data

Kharchi Puja

Kharchi Puja upsc notes
    Festival celebrated in Tripura
      Known as ‘Festival of 14 Gods’
      Occurs on the eighth day of new moon
        July or August each year
      Source: IE
  Festival revolves around
    Worship of Chaturdasa Devata
      Ancestral deity of Tripuri people
    Showcases rich history and traditions
  Word ‘Kharchi’ derived from Tripuri words
    Meaning ‘sin’ and ‘cleaning’
      Signifying cleansing of sins
  Significance linked to belief
    Presiding deity Tripura Sundari or Mother Goddess menstruates
      During Ambubachi period in June
    Earth becomes impure
    Puja performed to clean Earth and wash away sins

Geographical Indication Tags

Geographical Indication tags upsc notes
    Seven products from Uttar Pradesh
      Geographical Indication tag
        Source: TH
    Amroha Dholak
      Musical instrument
      Natural wood
        Mango and Sheesham trees
      Hollow blocks
        Carved from wood
        Fitted with animal skin
          Usually goatskin
    Baghpat Home Furnishings
      Handloom home furnishing products
      Fabrics woven in Baghpat and Meerut
        Cotton yarn only
        Frame looms instead of pit looms
    Barabanki Handloom Product
      Handloom products from Barabanki
      Known for extensive weaving tradition
    Kalpi Handmade Paper
      Handmade paper manufacturing
        From Kalpi
        Historical centre for craft
      Practised since 1940s
      Origins may date back further
    Mahoba Gaura Patthar
      Stonecraft made from “Pyro Flight Stone”
      Radiant white-coloured
      Predominantly found in the Mahoba region
      Cut into pieces for various craft items
    Mainpuri Tarkashi
      Brass wire inlay work on wood
      Used for making khadaous (wooden sandals)
      Leather avoided due to cultural considerations
    Sambhal Horn Craft
      Crafts made from raw materials from deceased animals
      Entirely handmade
  About GI tag
    Agricultural, natural or manufactured product
      Originating from definite geographical territory
    Assurance of quality and distinctiveness
      Attributable to the place of its origin


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