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[Newsbits] 13.01.2024: Atal Setu, Amaterasu, International Classification of Diseases (ICD) & more

newsbits mindmap notes
Swachh Survekshan Awards mind map
Recent News
Conferred by President
Droupadi Murmu
Hosted by
Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs
Celebrated
Swachh Bharat Mission's 9th year
Anthem
"Naya Sankalp Hai, Naya Prakalp Hai"
Singer
Kailash Kher
Event Highlights
Live sand art by Sudarsan Pattnaik
Stalls with upcycled products
Waste management technology exhibition
When
January 11, 2024
Why
Recognize sanitation achievements
What
Categories
Cleanest City
Cleanest Cantonment
SafaiMitra Suraksha
Ganga Towns
Best Performing State
Winners
Cleanest City
Indore and Surat
Population under 1 lakh
Saswad, Patan, Lonavala
Cleanest Cantonment
Mhow Cantonment Board
Cleanest Ganga Towns
Varanasi, Prayagraj
Best Performing State
Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
Best Safaimitra Surakshit Sheher
Chandigarh
Where
Bharat Mandapam, New Delhi
Who
Chief Guests
Chief Ministers
Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh
Urban Development Ministers
Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh
Attendees
Mayors, Administrators, Sector Partners
Subject Experts, Youth Organizations
Industry Representatives, SafaiMitras
Self Help Groups, NGOs, CSOs
How
Based on
Urban sanitation
Cleanliness survey
Criteria
46 indicators
Citizen feedback
Field assessment
Significance
Encourages
Healthy competition among cities
Improved service delivery
Sustainable waste management
Emphasizes
Circular waste management
Public participation
Cleanliness in Ganga towns
Challenges
Varied city rankings
Equitable participation issues
Sustainable practices adoption
Way Forward
Embrace circular economy
Enhance citizen involvement
Promote sustainable waste management

The Swachh Survekshan Awards, conferred by the President of India on January 11, 2024, celebrate outstanding urban sanitation and cleanliness achievements in India. Organized by the Ministry of Housing & Urban Affairs, these awards recognized cities and states excelling in various sanitation aspects. Indore and Surat were jointly declared the cleanest cities, with several other awards distributed across different categories. The awards, part of the Swachh Bharat Mission, encourage cities to enhance service delivery, focus on sustainable waste management, and ensure public participation. However, challenges include varying city rankings and ensuring equitable participation in sanitation initiatives.

17 Districts in Jharkhand Witness Drought mind map
Recent News
January 2024
158 blocks affected
1.5 million farmers impacted
When
Monsoon season 2023
Why
Below-average rainfall
38% less than average
What
Drought-hit declaration
In 17 districts
Ex-gratia amount
Rs 3500 per farmer
Cropping season
Paddy sowing reduced
Where
Jharkhand, India
Who
Jharkhand government
Chief Minister Hemant Soren
How
Meeting with Niti Ayog
Request for special package
Significance
Awareness of issue
Financial relief for farmers
Challenges
Frequent droughts
Lack of effective measures
Way Forward
Developing irrigation infrastructure
Shift focus to other crops
Pulses and oilseeds

In January 2024, the Jharkhand government declared 158 blocks across 17 districts as drought-hit due to significantly less rainfall during the 2023 monsoon season, which was 38% below average. This situation affected about 1.5 million farmers. The government, led by Chief Minister Hemant Soren, has responded by offering an ex-gratia amount of Rs 3500 to each impacted farmer. A meeting with Niti Ayog was held to request a special package for developing better irrigation infrastructure. The state, facing its tenth drought declaration in 23 years, now considers shifting agricultural focus to crops like pulses and oilseeds due to the challenges in paddy cultivation.

/ Space
Amaterasu Cosmic Ray Event mind map
Recent News
January 2024
When
Detected on May 27, 2021
Published in Science journal on November 23, 2023
Why
Study high-energy cosmic rays
Understand universe's fundamental building blocks
What
Name
Amaterasu
After Japanese sun goddess
Energy Level
240 exa-electron volts
Rank
Second-highest-energy cosmic ray
Previous Records
320 EeV in 1991 (Oh-My-God particle)
213 EeV in 1993
280 EeV in 2001
Where
Detected by Telescope Array Project
Location
Utah, United States
Origin
Unknown
Possibly from Local Void
Who
Discoverer
Toshihiro Fujii
Affiliation
Osaka Metropolitan University
How
Detection Method
Surface detector array
Telescope Array Project
Significance
Challenges existing paradigms
May reveal unknown astronomical phenomena
Challenges
Unknown origin
Extends beyond Standard Model
Way Forward
Continued research
Upgraded experiment (TAx4)
Four times sensitivity

The Amaterasu cosmic ray event refers to the detection of an ultra-high-energy cosmic ray named after the Japanese sun goddess. It was identified as the second-highest-energy cosmic ray ever found, with energy levels reaching 240 exa-electron-volts. Detected on May 27, 2021, by the Telescope Array Project in Utah, USA, the cosmic ray’s origin remains a mystery. It was discovered by Dr. Toshihiro Fujii from Osaka Metropolitan University. This event is significant as it challenges existing scientific paradigms and could potentially reveal unknown astronomical phenomena or novel physical origins that extend beyond the current Standard Model of particle physics.

/ Infrastructure
Atal Setu mind map
Recent News:
- Inaugurated by PM Modi
- In Mumbai
- January 2024
When:
- January 12, 2024
Why:
- Enhance connectivity
- Economic growth
What:
- Mumbai Trans Harbour Link
- Officially named Atal Setu
- 21.8 km long
- 6-lane sea bridge
- Connects:
- Mumbai
- Navi Mumbai
Where:
- Mumbai
- India
Who:
- Narendra Modi
- Prime Minister
- India
How:
- Engineering marvel
- Construction:
- 1,70,000 tonnes reinforced steel
- 90,000 tons of steel used
- 504,253 metric tonnes cement
- Funded by:
- MMRDA
- Japan JICA
- Labor:
- Bihar
- Orissa
- Uttar Pradesh
- Punjab
- Maharashtra
Significance:
- Reduces travel time
- From 2 hours to 20 mins
- Connects Mumbai and Pune Expressway
- Access to:
- Mumbai International Airport
- Navi Mumbai International Airport
- Mumbai Port
- Jawaharlal Nehru Port
- Economic development
- Better access to

Atal Setu, inaugurated in January 2024 by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, is a monumental infrastructure project in Mumbai. Officially known as the Mumbai Trans Harbour Link, this 21.8 km long sea bridge represents a significant stride in engineering and design. As India’s longest sea bridge, it connects Mumbai with Navi Mumbai, significantly reducing travel time from two hours to just about 20 minutes. This six-lane bridge not only enhances connectivity between critical areas like the Mumbai and Navi Mumbai International Airports and major ports but also promises economic growth and improved access to essential services like education and healthcare. While it stands as a testament to technological advancement and infrastructure prowess, the project also faces challenges concerning its environmental impact and the necessity for sustainable practices and regular monitoring.

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