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Geothermal Energy in India

Geothermal Energy in India mind map
Context
Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC)
Maiden geothermal field development project in Ladakh
Potential to generate 10 GW geothermal power
Geothermal energy
Definition
Natural heat from Earth's interior
Used for electricity generation and heating
Sources
Earth's crust
Magma layer
Radioactive material decay
Types of resources
Geopressurized zones
Hot-rock zones
Hydrothermal convection zones
Advantages
Renewable
Carbon-free
Independent from fuels
Available round the clock
Challenges
High initial investment
Location-specific
Need for technological advancements
Exploration risks
Independent Power Producer (IPP)
Concept
Private entity generating power
Sells to public grid or third parties
Financing models
Public-private partnership (PPP)
Independent Power Producer (IPP) schemes
Benefits
Increase in energy access
Economic productivity enhancement
Carbon emission reduction
Role in Geothermal Energy
Provide project financing
Invest in geothermal plants and drilling
Capacity building initiatives
Indian Context
Geothermal energy development
Exploration began in 1970
Geological Survey of India identified 350 locations
7 geothermal provinces identified
Puga valley in Ladakh most promising
10 GW power potential estimated
Government Initiatives
Capital subsidy up to 30% for industrial projects
MNRE (Ministry of New and Renewable Energy) incentives
Plans to generate 1000 MW by 2022
First geothermal power plant in Chhattisgarh (Tattapani field)
Major Indian companies
Tata Power
Investment in Geodynamics, Australia
Developing 240 MW unit in Indonesia
MoU with Gujarat government for geothermal plant
Thermax
Agreement with Maharashtra government
Joint venture with Reykjavik Geothermal, Iceland
GeoSyndicate
Major geothermal sites in India
Puga field
Chhumathang field
Manikaran field
Beas valley
Satluj and Spiti valley
Tapoban field, Chamoli
Tatapani field
Salbardi region
Anhoni-Samoni area
Unkeshwar
Godavari Graben
Andaman-Nicobar region
Damodar Valley basins
Western thermal province
Cambay geothermal region
Konkan geothermal provinces
Sohna thermal region
Tuwa and Chhabsar fields, Gujarat
Lasundra geothermal province
Industry Perspective
Need for government support
Technology and exploration funding
Policy framework
Economic Aspects
Cost range of $3-4 million per MW
Competitive power rates
Comparable to thermal coal
Lower than solar, wind, biomass
Global Presence
Geothermal electricity in 24 countries
Worldwide capacity of 10,715 MW

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