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Industrial Pollution in India: Types, Causes, Effects, Govt Efforts

The daily news of deteriorating air quality in Indian cities due to industrial pollution has become a regular affair. Recent studies show that industrial pollution in India has risen drastically and has led to a huge loss to the Indian economy in the last few years.  Thus, there is an urgent need to understand and address this problem as early as possible and protect the environment from further damage.

Solid Waste Management in India – Issues & Responses

One of the most serious issues arising out of the wave of rapid urbanization and the resultant lifestyle changes is the management of domestic and industrial solid wastes generated domestically as well as in different industries adjoining or inside the cities.

Not just the amount, but the nature of the solid waste is also changing with the growing share of plastics and packaging materials.

Municipal laws regulating the urban local bodies are unable to deal effectively with the growing problem of solid waste management.

One of the most important aspects of Solid Waste Management is dealing with the garbage dumpsites/Landfills of the cities- most of them being open and nearby to residential areas.

This article explains the following in an analytical manner with a mindmap for quick revision:

    • Some Basic Concepts
    • What is the present scenario of waste management in India?
    • What are the impacts of Waste Dumping?
    • What is Solid Waste Management?
    • How solid wastes are managed in India?
    • What are the issues/challenges with the waste management system in India?
    • What are the salient features of Solid Waste Management Rules, 2016?
    • What are the Limitations of Solid Waste Management rules?
    • What should be done?

Plastic Pollution – The Great Threat to Environment & Ecosystem

Plastic Pollution is the accumulation of synthetic plastic products in the environment to the point where they create problems for wildlife and their habitats as well as for human populations.

In 1907, the invention of Bakelite brought about a revolution in the materials by introducing truly synthetic plastic resins into world commerce.

However, by the end of the 20th century, plastics have become persistent polluters of different environmental niches, from Mount Everest to the bottom of the sea.

Whether being mistaken for food by animals, flooding low-lying areas by clogging drainage systems, or simply causing considerable aesthetic damage, plastics have attracted increasing global attention as a large-scale pollutant.

Millions of tonnes of plastic enter the seas each year, choking whales and other creatures, much of it in Asia. Plastic pollution has been found across the globe, from the most remote oceanic islands to high Swiss peaks. Microplastics/Microbeads have now also been found in tap water and human food around the world, with unknown implications for health.

This big-picture article explains the following in an analytical manner with a mindmap for quick revision.

  1. What is the magnitude of the plastic pollution problem?
  2. What are the major causes of plastic pollution?
  3. What are the effects of Plastic pollution?
  4. What are some of the international initiatives against plastic litter?
  5. What are India’s initiatives?
  6. What are the challenges in tackling plastic waste debris?
  7. What are the solutions?

[Updated] Delhi Air Pollution – Causes, Effects, Solutions

Recently, the Environment Pollution (Prevention and Control) Authority – EPCA had declared a public health emergency in the Delhi-NCR region as the pollution levels crossed the threshold of the “severe-plus” category. The air pollution is said to reach “Severe plus” or emergency levels when PM2.5 levels cross 300 µg/m3 or PM10 levels crosses 500µg/m3. As per the Graded Response Action Plan (GRAP), these levels, which are about 5-times the standard, need to persist for 48 hours or more before the emergency level can be declared. This is worrisome because, according to the plan, during severe or emergency levels of air pollution, those suffering from heart diseases, asthma and other respiratory diseases may suffer the most and has a direct impact on morality. According to WHO, air pollution kills 7 million people worldwide. And the health effects of air pollution are serious – about one-third of the deaths from stroke, lung cancer, and heart disease are caused by the same. It is having an equivalent effect to that of smoking tobacco.

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