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Nipah Outbreak in Kerala- Why is it Dangerous?

From Current Affairs Notes for UPSC » Editorials & In-depths » This topic

Nipah infection has resurfaced in Kerala, with recent fatalities and new cases. This zoonotic disease, originating from fruit bats, presents significant health challenges. The current situation in Kerala calls for an integrated, unifying approach.

This topic of “Nipah Outbreak in Kerala- Why is it Dangerous?” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination, which falls under General Studies Portion.

Nature of Nipah Virus Infection

What is Nipah Virus?

  • Nipah is a zoonotic disease transmitted from animals or contaminated food.
  • Human-to-human transmission is possible through close contact with infected individuals.

Symptoms of Nipah Virus Infection

  • Symptoms include fever, headache, cough, sore throat, difficulty breathing, and vomiting.
  • Severe cases may lead to disorientation, seizures, encephalitis, coma, and death.

Transmission of Nipah Virus

Origins and Animal Host

  • First outbreaks reported in Malaysia (1998) and Singapore (1999).
  • Virus named after a Malaysian village where the first human case emerged.
  • Fruit bats (flying foxes) are the primary reservoir and transmit the virus to other animals.

Modes of Transmission

  • Transmission to humans occurs through consumption of contaminated food, especially raw date palm sap.
  • Direct contact with infected animals or consumption of their contaminated saliva or urine can lead to human infection.
  • Person-to-person transmission reported in Bangladesh and India, particularly among caregivers and in healthcare settings.

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Historical Outbreaks

  • Multiple Nipah virus outbreaks have occurred in South and Southeast Asian nations.
  • Bangladesh has witnessed at least 10 outbreaks since 2001.
  • In India, West Bengal (2001, 2007) and Kerala (2018, 2019, 2021) have experienced outbreaks.

Severity and Mortality

  • Nipah virus spreads more slowly than COVID-19 but has a higher mortality rate.
  • Mortality rates in previous outbreaks:
    • Siliguri, Bengal (2001): 68%
    • Nadia district, West Bengal (2007): 100%
    • Kerala (2018): 94%
    • Malaysian outbreak (1999): 40%

Containment and Spread

  • Nipah virus outbreaks have been localized and contained relatively quickly.
  • Low reproductive number (R0) and high death rates contribute to limited transmission.
  • Swift containment efforts are vital.

Current Outbreak in Kozhikode

  • The fourth Nipah virus outbreak in Kerala within five years.
  • Two recent fatalities and three new cases reported.
  • No known cure; supportive care remains the primary treatment.
  • Stringent containment and monitoring measures in place.

Way Forward

  • Anthropogenic activity plays a role in zoonotic spillovers.
  • One Health approach needed to balance human, animal, and environmental health.
  • COVID-19 emphasized the importance of integrated health efforts.
  • Governments must adopt strategies to prevent future outbreaks.

Conclusion

The resurgence of Nipah virus in Kerala underscores the critical need for understanding, prevention, and containment of zoonotic diseases. Timely and coordinated efforts, including the One Health approach, are essential to safeguard human, animal, and environmental health. Vigilance remains the key to preventing future outbreaks.

Practice Question for Mains

In view of the recent outbreak in Kerala, discuss why Nipah virus is a dangerous pathogen despite its slower spreading. How can we prevent such outbreaks? (250 words)

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