[Newsbits] 25-26.02.2024: Sudarshan Setu, Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES) & More

newsbits mindmap notes
/ Consumers, Indices/Reports
Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES) 2022-23 mind map
Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI)
Highlights of HCES 2022-23
Conducted by
National Statistical Office
Historical Context
Gap in Survey Release
Last released for 2011-12
No release for 2017-18
Post demonetisation
Post GST implementation
Key Parameters Tracked
Detailed household spending
Across rural and urban areas
Food, education, health
Transportation, others
Consumption Spending Rise
Rural vs Urban
Rural increase
164% from 2011-12 to 2022-23
Rs 1,430 to Rs 3,773 per person/month
Urban increase
146% from 2011-12 to 2022-23
Rs 2,630 to Rs 6,459 per person/month
Rural-Urban Consumption Parity
Improving parity
Bridging consumption divide
Change in Purchase Priority
Boost in Rural Non-Food Spending
Share of non-food products
Increased 47% to 54%
Decrease in food items share
Decreased 53% to 46%
Rise in spending on
Conveyance, consumer services
Durable goods
Top and Bottom
Average MPCE
Bottom 5% rural population
Rs 1,373
Bottom 5% urban population
Rs 2,001
Top 5% rural population
Rs 10,501
Top 5% urban population
Rs 20,824
Lower Poverty Projections
By NITI Aayog CEO B.V.R. Subrahmanyam
Historically lowest levels
4-5% poor population
Economic poverty marker
Monthly income under ₹5000
Upcoming Detailed Report
To review critical economic indicators
GDP, poverty levels
Consumer Price Inflation (CPI)

The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation (MoSPI) recently released the highlights of the latest nationwide Household Consumption Expenditure Survey (HCES) conducted during 2022-23 by the National Statistical Office. This survey comes after a significant gap since the last release for 2011-12, with the 2017-18 round not being released post demonetisation and GST implementation.

The HCES tracks detailed household spending data across various categories such as food, education, health, and transportation, providing insights into consumption behavioral shifts. The report reveals an increase in rural consumption spending, with rural average monthly consumption per person rising by 164% from 2011-12 to 2022-23, compared to a 146% increase in urban areas. This data marks an improving parity between rural and urban consumption.

A significant change in purchase priorities has been observed, with a boost in rural non-food spending. The share of non-food products in the monthly rural consumption budget expanded from 47% to 54%, while food items share dropped from 53% to 46%. The survey also reports on the economic disparities within rural and urban populations, noting the differences in average Monthly Per Capita Consumption Expenditure (MPCE) among the top and bottom percentages of these populations.

NITI Aayog’s CEO, B.V.R. Subrahmanyam, highlighted the survey’s indication of historically low poverty levels, with less than 5% of the population falling below the economic poverty marker of a monthly income under ₹5000.

MoSPI has announced that a detailed report will be released soon, which is expected to play a pivotal role in reviewing critical economic indicators such as the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), poverty levels, and the Consumer Price Inflation (CPI).

Exercise Dharma Guardian 2024 mind map
Recent News
India-Japan Wargames
Mahajan Field Firing Range
14 Days
Deepen Military Cooperation
Enhance Interoperability
Tactical-Level Operations
In Semi-Urban Environment
Under United Nations Mandate
Focus Areas
Physical Fitness
Tactical Level Drills
Integrated Surveillance Grids
Previous Edition
Camp Imazu, Shiga, Japan
Starting Date
February 25, 2024
Previous Editions
First Edition
Vairengte, Mizoram, India
Counter-Insurgency and Jungle Warfare School
Need for Interoperability
Shared Security Concerns
Exercise Components
Joint Planning
Tactical Drills
Variety of Missions
Areas of Focus
Urban and Jungle Scenarios
Mahajan Field Firing Range
Rajasthan, India
Participating Countries
Indian Army
Japan Self Defense Forces
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force
Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force
Japan Air Self-Defense Force
Strategic Partners
Enhanced Bilateral Exercises
Joint Military Exercises
Sharing Best Practices
Conducting Joint Operations
Previous Cooperation
Naval Exercises
Japan-India Maritime Exercise
Veer Guardian
Other Engagements
Malabar Naval Exercise
Frequent Port Calls
Facility in Djibouti
Strengthened Defense Ties
Common Interests
Free and Open Indo-Pacific
Enhanced Regional Security
Diverse Training Environments
Regional Tensions
North Korea
South Korea
Global Security Concerns
Maritime Security
Way Forward
Future Engagements
2+2 Talks
Annual Summit Meetings
Defense Industry Cooperation
Defense Exports
Alternate Weapon Sources
Regional Stability
Northeast India
Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Exercise Dharma Guardian 2024 is a joint military exercise between India and Japan, held at the Mahajan Field Firing Range in Rajasthan. Starting on February 25, 2024, this 14-day event aims to deepen bilateral military cooperation and enhance interoperability, focusing on tactical-level operations in semi-urban environments under the United Nations mandate. The exercise includes joint planning, tactical drills, and various missions emphasizing physical fitness, counter-terrorism, urban and jungle scenarios. Both countries, strategic partners, aim to strengthen defense ties and ensure regional security, reflecting their common interest in a free and open Indo-Pacific. The exercises also address global security concerns like terrorism and maritime security. Future engagements include 2+2 talks, annual summit meetings, and collaborations in the defense industry, particularly in defense exports and weapon sourcing.

/ Languages of India
Language Atlas of India mind map
Recent News
On Tribal
And Indigenous Languages
By UNESCO New Delhi
Collaboration with
Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts
International Mother Language Day 2022
Documentation of Lesser Known Languages
Preserves Unique Cultural Histories
Enhances Local Perspectives
First Edition
Based on 1991 Census
Published in 2004
Subsequent Editions
Follow 2001
And 2011 Censuses
Document Linguistic Diversity
Geographical Distribution of Languages
Rationalize Mother Tongue Data
From Census
Preserve Cultural Heritage
Language Division Kolkata
Established 1961
Attached to
Office of Registrar General
Census Commissioner, India
Tabulation of Census Language Data
Linguistic Survey of India
Based on Grierson's Classification
179 Languages
544 Dialects
State-Specific Surveys
Publication of State Volumes
Language Atlas Features
74 Maps
Six Sections
Family-wise Languages
Scheduled Languages
Non-Scheduled Languages
Bilingualism and Trilingualism
Mother Tongues and Scheduled Tribes
Census Data Usage
Defines Mother Tongue
Categorizes Language Families
Records Bilingualism Rates
Scheduled Languages
22 Languages
As per Eighth Schedule of Constitution
Diverse Linguistic Landscape
Various States and Union Territories
Office of Registrar General
And Census Commissioner, India
Produces Atlas
Sir George Abraham Grierson
Irish Linguist
Conducted Pre-Independence Survey
Data Collection
From Census Returns
Surveys and Questionnaires
State-Specific Volumes
Comparative Lexicons
Enhances Understanding
Of India's Linguistic Diversity
Preserves Languages
For Future Generations
Empowers Communities
Through Language Documentation
Language Loss
Community Identity Erosion
Documentation Challenges
Of Lesser Known Languages
Way Forward
Continuous Update
With Future Census Data
Expanded Research
On Endangered Languages
Increased Public Awareness
Of Linguistic Heritage

The Language Atlas of India is a comprehensive resource that maps the linguistic diversity of India based on census data. It was first published in 2004 using 1991 census data, with subsequent editions following later censuses. The atlas, produced by the Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India, documents languages and dialects across India, categorizing them into various language families and recording rates of bilingualism. Recent efforts, like the UNESCO report on tribal and indigenous languages, emphasize the significance of documenting and preserving linguistic diversity. The atlas serves as a vital tool for understanding India’s rich linguistic heritage, highlighting the importance of language in cultural identity and community empowerment.

/ Road
Sudarshan Setu mind map
Inaugurated on February 25, 2024
Connects Okha to Beyt Dwarka
In Gulf of Kutch, Gujarat
India's Longest Cable-Stayed Bridge
2,320 meters
Enhance Infrastructure
Improve Connectivity in Gujarat
Inaugurated by
Prime Minister Narendra Modi
Authorised by
Union Transport Minister
Nitin Gadkari
Local Population
Pilgrims visiting temples
Initiated on October 7, 2017
Completed After Years
Of Planning and Construction
Supports Local Population
Aids Pilgrims
India's Technical Excellence
Advanced Infrastructure
Related Development Projects
Totaling Rs. 4253 Crore
Devbhumi Dwarka
Porbandar Districts
Transport Projects
Energy Initiatives
Urban Infrastructure Improvement
Major Projects
Electrification of Railway Lines
Rajkot – Okha
Rajkot – Jetalsar – Somnath
Offshore Pipes at Vadinar
Renewable Energy Projects
Waste Land Solar PV Project
Sewage Treatment Facility
Regional Research Centre

The Sudarshan Setu, inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on February 25, 2024, is India’s longest cable-stayed bridge, connecting Okha and Beyt Dwarka in Gujarat. Spanning 2,320 meters, it significantly enhances the region’s infrastructure and connectivity. Initiated in 2017 and part of a broader development project in Gujarat, it supports the local population and temple pilgrims. Accompanying projects focus on transport, energy, and urban infrastructure improvements, including railway electrification and renewable energy initiatives.

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