20% Special Sale Ends Today! Hurry Up!!!

[Newsbits] 22.11.2023

newsbits mindmap notes

PARAKH (Performance assessment, review, and analysis of knowledge for holistic development)

PARAKH(Performance assessment, review, and analysis of knowledge for holistic development) mind map
India's national assessment regulator
Established
2020
In line with
National education policy (NEP)
Functions
Set standards for student assessment
Create evaluation criteria
Aim
Eliminate score disparities
Among different state boards

Sathee (Self-assessment test and help for entrance exams)

SATHEE (Self-assessment test and help for entrance exams) mind map
Open learning platform
Launched by
Ministry of education
IIT-Kanpur
Features
No cost preparation
Materials in multiple languages

Prelims Sureshots – Most Probable Topics for UPSC Prelims

A Compilation of the Most Probable Topics for UPSC Prelims, including Schemes, Freedom Fighters, Judgments, Acts, National Parks, Government Agencies, Space Missions, and more. Get a guaranteed 120+ marks!

Southern annular mode (SAM)

Southern annular mode (SAM) mind map
Discovered by INCOIS
Role
Shaping sea conditions
Indian Ocean
Description
North-south movement
Southern westerly winds
Timescales
Decades to centuries
Defined as pressure difference
At 40°S and 65°S
Importance
Influences wave patterns
Climate driver
Affects rainfall and temperature
Swell waves specifics
Regular, longer period waves
Generated by energy beneath surface
Self-sustaining
Key regions in Indian Ocean
Extratropical southern Indian Ocean (ETSI)
Tropical southern Indian Ocean (TSIO)
Phases
Positive SAM phase
Anomalous air pressure distribution
Effects on weather and wave activity
Negative SAM phase
Pressure and wind shifts
Impact on wave heights
Significance of SAM study
Predict sea state windows
Utilization by oil and shipping industries
Aids in
Coastal planning
Resource management
Disaster preparedness

Atmospheric waves experiment (AWE)

Atmospheric waves experiment (AWE) mind map
Mission of opportunity
Under NASA's heliophysics explorers program
Objectives
Study terrestrial and space weather interactions
Investigate airglow
Bands of light in Earth's atmosphere
Features
Advanced mesospheric temperature mapper (ATMT)
Mounted on ISS
Record airglow at mesopause
Infrared bandwidth
Mesopause details
Between mesosphere and thermosphere
Altitude
85 to 87 km above Earth's surface
Temperature
Dips to -100° C
Functions
Image airglow continuously
Study atmospheric gravity waves (AGW)
Produced by weather events like thunderstorms
Contribute to space weather
Space weather specifics
Environment around Earth and other planets
Influenced by
Sun-bound emissions
Surrounding matters in space
Earth's influence
Extreme terrestrial weather impacts space conditions
Importance
Affects vital Earth installations
Satellite communication
Radio communication
Space-based infrastructures
Aircraft orbits
Stations
Effects of space weather
Atmospheric phenomena
Energetic electrons
Damage to spacecraft electronics
Solar flare protons
Radiation effects
On avionics
Communications
Earth impacts
Ionospheric currents
GPS signal scintillation
Disruption in navigation systems
Geomagnetically induced currents
In power systems
Potential for outages
Telluric currents in pipelines
Corrosion risks
Induced effects in submarine cables
Communication disruptions

International Space Station (ISS)

International Space Station (ISS) mind map
Context
Expedition 70 crew activities
Space biology
Dragon spacecraft activities
Celebrating
ISS 25th anniversary
Complex international project
Science and engineering
Largest human-made structure in space
Serves as
Laboratory for new technologies
Observation platform
Research facility
Orbit
Earth
Average altitude of 400 kilometers
Circles globe every 90 minutes
Construction
Piece by piece in orbit
First module
Zarya launched in 1998
Built by
Five space agencies
15 countries
Components
NASA (USA)
Roscosmos (Russia)
JAXA (Japan)
Canadian Space Agency
European Space Agency
Size
ISS weight
Almost 400 tonnes
Area coverage
As big as a football pitch
Russia's role
Course corrections
Avoid space debris
Facilitate astronaut transport
Withdrawal of support
2022 due to Ukraine conflict
Importance of ISS
Crew members
Conduct research
Microgravity
Life support systems
Radiation environment
Future human space exploration
Medical discoveries
Osteoporosis treatments
Muscle atrophy understanding
Technological advancements
ISS construction impacts
Support systems
Space exploration
Notable successes
Mission life
Operation expected until 2030
China's mission
Tianhe space station
Permanently crewed
Launched in 2021
20 space station missions planned
India's mission
Own space station by 2030
Astronauts stay for 15-20 days

International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO)

International Tropical Timber Organization (ITTO) mind map
Context
59th International Tropical Timber Council (ITTC)
Annual session focus
Sustainable tropical forest management
Trade of sustainably produced tropical timber
Source
DTE
Timber definition
Processed wood
Applications
Construction
Furniture
Other industries
Primary raw material
Wood industry
ITTO details
Formation
1986
Headquarters
Yokohama, Japan
Intergovernmental organization
Promotes conservation
Tropical forest resources
Sustainable management, use, trade
Governing body
International Tropical Timber Council (ITTC)
Membership
India as founding member

United Service Institution of India (USI)

United Service Institution of India (USI) mind map
Context
USI organizing
Annual UN Forum 2023
Location
New Delhi
Focus
International Humanitarian Law and Peacekeeping
Collaboration
International Committee of the Red Cross
Centre for UN Peacekeeping Operations
Challenges addressed
Application of IHL principles
Contemporary UN peacekeeping missions
Source
PIB
About USI
Oldest think-tank in India
Established in 1870
Platform for
Research
Debate
Topics
National security
Military affairs

E Prime Layer

E Prime Layer mind map
Context
Study by international team
Researchers included
Arizona State University
Source
Astrobiology
E-Prime Layer
Distinct layer
Outermost part of Earth's core
Formation
Surface water penetration
Over billions of years
Characteristics
Hydrogen-rich
Silicon-depleted
Reaction with core's silicon
Core-mantle boundary
Previous belief
Minimal material exchange
Core and mantle
New findings
Tectonic plates transport
Surface water
To core-mantle boundary
Depth of around 1,800 miles
Chemical reaction
Forms silica
Creates E-Prime Layer
Significance
Understanding of
Earth's processes
Magnetic field
Heat generation
Plate tectonics
Earth's layers & Discontinuties
Crust
Mohorovičić Discontinuity (Moho)
Mantle
Upper
Repetti Discontinuity
Transition
Lehmann Discontinuity
Lower
Gutenberg Discontinuity
Outer Core
Lehmann Discontinuity
Core-mantle boundary
Inner Core
Bullen Discontinuity
Inner core boundary

Langlands program & Abel Prize

Langlands program & Abel Prize mind map
Context
Initiated in 1967
Mathematician Robert Langlands
Abel Prize in 2018
World's largest mathematics project
Source
TH
Definition
Research initiative
Aims to connect
Number theory
Harmonic analysis
Significance
Impact on various branches
Mathematics
Breakthroughs
Solving mathematical problems
Abel Prize
Prestigious mathematics award
Named after Niels Henrik Abel
Established in 2002
Norwegian Parliament
Recognizes
Scientific achievements
Mathematics
2023 recipient
Luis Caffarelli
Contributions to
Regularity theory
Nonlinear partial differential equations

Ice stupas

Ice stupas mind map
Context
Ladakh 
water crisis
Flash flooding
Decrease in meadows
Pasture for pashmina goats
Source
BBC
Invented by
engineer Sonam Wangchuk
Structure
Resemble Buddhist stupas
Created by
Freezing water in winter
Purpose
Provide water supply in spring
Popularity
Gained in Ladakh
How Ice Stupas work

Oxfam Report on Climate Inequality

Oxfam Report on Climate Inequality mind map
Context
Oxfam report
Climate equality
A planet for the 99%
Richest 1% carbon emission
Equivalent to poorest 66%
1.3 million heat-related deaths
Source
DTE
Oxfam
Climate inequality
Definition
Unequal distribution
Impacts of climate change
Vulnerable communities
Disproportionate effects
Disparities
Exposure to risks
Access to resources
Contribution to emissions
Major findings
Wealthiest 1% in 2019
16% global carbon emissions
Equivalent
Poorest 66% of humanity
Since 1990s
Top 1% carbon emission
Twice the carbon budget
Poorest half of humanity
By 2030
Projected emissions
Over 22 times safe limit
Below 1.5°C global warming
Annual emissions by super-rich 1%
Cancel out savings
Million onshore wind turbines
Tax proposal
60% on incomes
Super-rich 1% of earners
Cut carbon equivalent
Total emissions of UK
Raise funds
Over US$6 trillion
Renewable energy
Transition away from fossil fuels
Various impacts of carbon inequality
Emission disparities
Top 1% emissions
Since 1990s
Twice carbon budget
Poorest half
Heat-related deaths
Super-rich 1% emissions in 2019
1.3 million deaths
Increase expected
Extreme temperatures
Impact on agricultural production
Global food system inequality
Soaring food prices
Disproportionate effect
Impoverished populations
Global South
Economic inequalities
Least responsible countries
Worst climate consequences
Least recovery ability
Exacerbates
Global economic disparities
Climate apartheid
Wealthy countries and individuals
Insulated from worst consequences
Gender disparities
Women disproportionately affected
Lower socio-economic status
Less access to relief and assistance
Reduced life expectancy
Following climate disasters
Living conditions
Wealthier individuals
Better insulated
Example
Dharavi slums
No adequate heat protection
Higher temperatures
Neighbouring richer suburbs
Implications for hunger and malnutrition
Soaring food prices
Extreme weather events
Future of hunger
People at or near poverty
Poorest spend more
Income on food
Link between
Carbon inequality
Access to essential resources
Food
Solutions to address climate inequality
Vision, political will, and commitment
Just and equal transformation
Depends on
Visionary leadership
Political will
Prioritizing well-being
Majority
Mitigate extreme weather events
Invest in resilient infrastructure
Vulnerable areas
Implement early warning systems
At-risk communities
Equitable distribution
Disaster response resources
Marginalized groups
Priority in climate policies
Inclusivity in decision-making
Targeted support
Marginalized communities
Examples
PDS
MGNREGA
Food security
Develop climate-resilient agriculture
Food systems
Policies
Economic food inequalities
Support local food production
Distribution
Economic equalities
Fair global trade policies
Financial support
Most affected countries
Example
PM KISAN
Technology transfer
Sustainable development
Compensation for climate debts
Strengthen climate finance commitments
Explore reparations
Historical harm
Fast, just transition away from fossil fuels
Taxation of wealthiest
Generate funds
Transition
Compensate loss and damage
Ending non-essential overconsumption
Advocated by report
Particularly
Wealthiest individuals
Global society
Example
India's LiFE initiative

Subscribe
Notify of
guest
0 Comments
Inline Feedbacks
View all comments
X
Home Courses Plans Account
20% Special Sale Ends Today! Hurry Up!!!