Micro and nanoplastics, defined as tiny plastic particles less than 5mm and 1μm respectively, have become a significant concern for environmental and human health. Recent studies, including those conducted in 2024, reveal the alarming presence of these particles in everyday items such as bottled water, with reports indicating up to 240,000 nanoparticles per litre. Found in various locations like beaches and food products, these particles are a global issue. Key organizations like the Columbia Climate School are involved in researching their impact. The detection methods include novel microscopy techniques and data-driven algorithms. Micro and nanoplastics pose serious health risks including carcinogenic properties, genotoxicity, and metabolic disruption, and they also have detrimental effects on ecosystems, such as disruption and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The way forward involves increased awareness, more research to address knowledge gaps, and thorough impact assessments.
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