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Elucidate the relationship between globalization and new technology in a world of scarce resources with special reference to India. (250 words) [2022]

Globalization encompasses the increasing integration of economies, cultures, and societies on a global scale, facilitated by advancements in communication, transportation, and trade. New technology refers to the rapid developments in digital technologies, automation, artificial intelligence, and other innovative tools that reshape industries and societies.

In India, a nation battling resource scarcity, the interaction between globalization and new technology manifests in a myriad of positive and negative ways.

Positive Impacts

  1. IT Industry and Job Creation: Firms like Infosys and TCS, riding the globalization wave, have created jobs while offering software solutions globally, saving on physical resources.
  2. E-commerce Efficiency: Globalized e-commerce platforms such as Flipkart and Amazon India, enable product diversity and access with fewer resource inputs, notably fuel, reducing environmental impact.
  3. Green Energy Innovations: Suzlon Energy Ltd., an Indian wind turbine company, showcases how technology-driven globalization can offer renewable energy solutions, countering traditional energy resource scarcity.
  4. Smart Farming: Agri-tech startups like DeHaat and AgroStar use technology for improved resource management and crop yields, combating issues like water and soil scarcity.
  5. Digital Education: EdTech platforms like BYJU’S and Unacademy democratize education through technology, reducing the need for extensive physical infrastructure.

Negative Impacts

  1. Digital Divide: Despite the advantages, digital education and e-commerce are less accessible to the rural and economically disadvantaged, exacerbating social inequalities.
  2. Job Displacement: Rapid technological change can displace workers in traditional industries. For example, automation in manufacturing can lead to job losses.
  3. Data Privacy Concerns: Globalization has also raised data privacy concerns. With multinational tech companies storing user data, the risk of data breaches increases.
  4. Overconsumption and Waste: Easy access to globalized consumer goods can lead to overconsumption and increased waste, straining the already scarce resources.

Conclusion: Globalization and technology present a two-sided coin for India, offering opportunities for growth and resource optimization while posing challenges of inequality, job displacement, and privacy. Addressing these requires balanced, inclusive policies that leverage the benefits while mitigating the negatives.

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