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Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) mind map
Recent News
January 2024
Cases in various countries
United States
China
United Kingdom
Spain
Ecuador
Vietnam
When
Identified since 1997
Recent human cases
2022 to March 2023
Why
Occurs in birds
Sporadic human infection
What
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1
Clades
2.3.4.4b
2.3.2.1c
Where
Global presence
Recent cases in multiple countries
Who
Affects birds
Human cases
Exposed to infected birds
How
Transmission
Bird to human
Limited human-to-human
Significance
Rare in humans
Challenges
High fatality rate in birds
Sporadic human fatalities
Way Forward
Active monitoring
Exposed individuals
Influenza testing
Public health laboratories

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), specifically the H5N1 subtype, primarily affects birds but can sporadically infect humans, typically those exposed to infected birds. Identified since 1997, it has a global presence, with recent cases in various countries including the U.S., China, and the U.K. HPAI is rare in humans but can be severe, with a high fatality rate in birds and sporadic human fatalities. Efforts to combat HPAI include active monitoring of exposed individuals and influenza testing in public health laboratories.

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