The year 2023 marked a significant and concerning milestone in climate change history, as it was recorded as the hottest calendar year since measurements began. The global average temperature reached 1.48°C above pre-industrial levels, with an average of 14.98°C, making it a year of extreme heat and weather anomalies. The principal cause of this unprecedented rise in temperature is attributed to the increase in greenhouse gases, along with factors like the El Niño effect, natural ocean oscillations, augmented solar activity, and the impact of an undersea volcano eruption in 2022. The year saw every single day exceeding the 1°C above pre-industrial levels, and for nearly half the year, temperatures were over 1.5°C warmer. This phenomenon had global implications, emphasizing the urgency for stronger climate action, particularly the transition away from fossil fuels to mitigate further risks and challenges posed by climate change.
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