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History (Optional) Notes, Mindmaps & Related Current Affairs

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  2. FREE Samples
    4 Submodules
    1. Sources
    9 Submodules
  4. 2. Pre-history and Proto-history
    3 Submodules
  5. 3. Indus Valley Civilization
    8 Submodules
  6. 4. Megalithic Cultures
    3 Submodules
  7. 5. Aryans and Vedic Period
    8 Submodules
  8. 6. Period of Mahajanapadas
    10 Submodules
  9. 7. Mauryan Empire
    7 Submodules
  10. 8. Post – Mauryan Period
    7 Submodules
  11. 9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India
    9 Submodules
  12. 10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas
    14 Submodules
  13. 11. The Regional States during the Gupta Era
    18 Submodules
  14. 12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History
    9 Submodules
    13. Early Medieval India (750-1200)
    9 Submodules
  16. 14. Cultural Traditions in India (750-1200)
    11 Submodules
  17. 15. The Thirteenth Century
    2 Submodules
  18. 16. The Fourteenth Century
    6 Submodules
  19. 17. Administration, Society, Culture, Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
    13 Submodules
  20. 18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy
    14 Submodules
  21. 19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture
    3 Submodules
  22. 20. Akbar
    8 Submodules
  23. 21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century
    7 Submodules
  24. 22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
    11 Submodules
  25. 23. Culture in the Mughal Empire
    8 Submodules
  26. 24. The Eighteenth Century
    7 Submodules
    1. European Penetration into India
    6 Submodules
  28. 2. British Expansion in India
    4 Submodules
  29. 3. Early Structure of the British Raj
    8 Submodules
  30. 4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule
    12 Submodules
  31. 5. Social and Cultural Developments
    7 Submodules
  32. 6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas
    8 Submodules
  33. 7. Indian Response to British Rule
    8 Submodules
  34. 8. Indian Nationalism - Part I
    11 Submodules
  35. 9. Indian Nationalism - Part II
    8 Submodules
  36. 10. Constitutional Developments in Colonial India between 1858 and 1935
  37. 11. Other strands in the National Movement (Revolutionaries & the Left)
  38. 12. Politics of Separatism
  39. 13. Consolidation as a Nation
  40. 14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947
  41. 15. Economic development and political change
    16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas
  43. 17. Origins of Modern Politics
  44. 18. Industrialization
  45. 19. Nation-State System
  46. 20. Imperialism and Colonialism
  47. 21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution
  48. 22. World Wars
  49. 23. The World after World War II
  50. 24. Liberation from Colonial Rule
  51. 25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment
  52. 26. Unification of Europe
  53. 27. Disintegration of the Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World
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I. Introduction

The Battle of Plassey, fought on 23 June 1757, marked a pivotal moment in Indian history. Pitting the British East India Company against the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daulah, and his allies, the battle saw a decisive victory for the British, largely due to internal betrayals within the Nawab’s camp. This triumph paved the way for nearly two centuries of British rule in India, fundamentally altering the political and socio-economic landscape of the subcontinent.

Battle of Plassey map upsc

II. The Prelude to the Battle

The Political Scenario in Bengal

  • Bengal in the 18th century was one of the most prosperous regions in India, known for its rich resources, flourishing trade, and cultural heritage.
  • The Nawabs of Bengal held significant power and were responsible for maintaining the region’s stability and prosperity.
  • Alivardi Khan, the Nawab of Bengal before Siraj-ud-Daulah, played a pivotal role in strengthening Bengal’s position in India. He ruled from 1740 to 1756 and was known for his administrative acumen.
  • During Alivardi Khan’s reign, the British East India Company had already established its presence in Bengal, primarily through trade. However, they were not yet a dominant political force in the region.
  • The relationship between the Nawabs and the British was initially based on mutual trade interests, but tensions began to rise due to the British’s increasing influence and ambitions.

Siraj-ud-Daulah’s Ascension to Power

  • Siraj-ud-Daulah became the Nawab of Bengal in 1756, succeeding his maternal grandfather, Alivardi Khan.
  • His ascension was met with internal dissent, as there were other contenders for the throne. This internal strife weakened his position initially.
  • Siraj-ud-Daulah was young and relatively inexperienced, but he was determined to assert his authority and reduce foreign influence in Bengal.
  • He was particularly wary of the British East India Company’s growing power and their intentions to expand their control beyond trade.

Relations with the British

  • The British East India Company had been granted trading rights in Bengal by the earlier Nawabs. However, they began to misuse these privileges by fortifying their positions and engaging in unauthorized trade.
  • Fort William in Calcutta (now Kolkata) was a significant stronghold for the British. Siraj-ud-Daulah viewed the fortification of this establishment as a direct challenge to his authority.
  • The Nawab demanded the British stop their unauthorized fortifications and pay the outstanding revenues. The British, on the other hand, were reluctant to comply with these demands.
  • This growing mistrust and the British’s non-compliance with the Nawab’s orders led to heightened tensions between the two parties.

The British East India Company’s Ambitions in India

  • The British East India Company was established in 1600 with the primary aim of trading in the Indian subcontinent.
  • Over the years, the company transitioned from being purely a trading entity to seeking control over territories. Their ambition was fueled by the immense wealth and resources India had to offer.
  • By the mid-18th century, the company had established strongholds in various parts of India, including Madras (now Chennai), Bombay (now Mumbai), and Calcutta.
  • The company’s strategy was not just limited to trade; they aimed to become a significant political power in India. This involved forming alliances with local rulers, instigating conflicts, and taking advantage of the political vacuum in certain regions.
  • In Bengal, the company’s ambitions were clear: they wanted to control the rich resources and trade routes. This ambition was a significant factor in the escalating tensions with Siraj-ud-Daulah.

III. Key Figures in the Battle

  • Robert Clive
    • Background: Born in Shropshire, England, Robert Clive was a controversial figure in British India. He began his career as a writer for the British East India Company but quickly rose through the ranks due to his military acumen.
    • Role in the Battle: Clive played a pivotal role in the Battle of Plassey. His strategic decisions, combined with his ability to exploit the divisions within the Nawab’s camp, led to the British victory. He utilized a combination of diplomacy, subterfuge, and military tactics to ensure British dominance.
    • Post-Battle Impact: After the victory at Plassey, Clive became the Governor of Bengal. His policies and administrative decisions laid the foundation for British rule in India.
  • Siraj-ud-Daulah
    • Background: Siraj-ud-Daulah was the last independent Nawab of Bengal. He was known for his youthful energy and was determined to curtail the increasing power of the British East India Company.
    • Leadership Style: Siraj was a decisive leader, often making swift decisions. However, his rule was marked by internal dissent and treachery, which ultimately led to his downfall.
    • Relations with the British: Initially, Siraj tried to maintain a balanced relationship with the British. However, tensions escalated due to the fortification of Calcutta by the British and the Nawab’s subsequent capture of the city.
  • Mir Jafar
    • Background: Mir Jafar was a key figure in the court of Nawab Siraj-ud-Daulah and played a significant role in the Battle of Plassey.
    • Defection: Discontented with Siraj’s leadership and lured by the promise of becoming the Nawab, Mir Jafar conspired with the British. He provided them with vital information and ensured that a significant portion of the Nawab’s army did not participate actively in the battle.
    • Impact on the Battle: Mir Jafar’s betrayal was a turning point in the Battle of Plassey. His defection ensured British victory and changed the course of Indian history.
    • Post-Battle Role: After the battle, as promised, the British installed Mir Jafar as the Nawab of Bengal. However, he was largely a puppet ruler under British influence.

IV. The Battle Unfolds

The strategies employed by both sides

  • British East India Company:
    • Led by Colonel Robert Clive.
    • Utilized a mix of European and Indian troops.
    • Comprised 950 European Troops (including 250 men of His Majesty’s 39th Foot).
    • Included 2,100 Indian troops (sepoys and topazes).
    • Supported by 60 sailors and 100 artillerymen.
    • Armed with eight 6 pounder guns and two howitzers.
    • Relied on treachery within the Nawab’s high command.
  • Siraj-ud-Daulah’s forces:
    • Nawab of Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa.
    • Army consisted of 35,000 infantry and 15,000 cavalry.
    • Artillery included 53 pieces of cannon (18, 24, and 32 pounders).
    • A small French force, led by St Frais, supervised the artillery and manned some guns.
    • Indian soldiers armed with bows, swords, and spears.
    • Some possessed firearms, mainly firelocks.
    • Cavalry comprised largely of Afghans and Pathans from the north-west.

The role of the French allies in the battle

  • A small French force participated in the battle.
  • Commanded by St Frais.
  • Provided expertise in artillery.
  • Manned some of the cannons.

The actual events of the battle and the decisive moments

  • The battle took place on 23rd June 1757.
  • Located in Bengal on the Bhagirathi River north of Calcutta.
  • Siraj-ud-Daulah’s guns were on wooden trucks, moved by oxen and elephants.
  • The British were victorious, with significant assistance from traitors within Siraj-ud-Daulah’s army.

V. The Aftermath of the Battle

The Immediate Consequences for Bengal and its Nawab

  • Bengal, once a prosperous region, faced significant economic and political upheavals post-battle.
  • The Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daulah, was captured and executed, leading to a power vacuum in the region.
  • The British East India Company took advantage of this situation and installed Mir Jafar as the puppet Nawab, ensuring their control over Bengal’s administration.
  • The treachery of key officials, including Jagat Seth and Mir Jafar, played a crucial role in the Nawab’s downfall.
  • The Battle of Plassey marked the beginning of a series of events that would lead to the decline of Bengal’s economic and cultural prominence.
  • Bengal’s rich resources, especially its textiles, were exploited, leading to the deindustrialization of the region.
  • The Bengali populace faced hardships due to increased taxation and the Company’s monopolistic trade practices.

The Rise of the British East India Company as a Dominant Power

  • The victory at Plassey was a turning point for the British East India Company in India.
  • The Company transitioned from being a mere trading entity to a major political power.
  • With the puppet Nawab in place, the Company gained significant control over Bengal’s revenue and administration.
  • The Diwani rights, or the right to collect revenue, were granted to the Company by the Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II in 1765.
  • This allowed the Company to amass immense wealth, which was used to finance its operations and further its ambitions in India.
  • The Company’s dominance was further solidified with victories in subsequent battles, such as the Battle of Buxar in 1764.
  • The establishment of the Calcutta Presidency further strengthened the Company’s administrative control over large parts of India.

The Beginning of Nearly Two Centuries of British Rule in India

  • The British East India Company laid the foundation for what would become nearly 200 years of British colonial rule in India.
  • The Company’s rule was characterized by economic exploitation, cultural imposition, and administrative reforms.
  • The introduction of English education and Western thought had a profound impact on Indian society, leading to both reformation and resistance.
  • The Indian Rebellion of 1857, also known as the Sepoy Mutiny, was a significant event that marked the end of the Company’s rule and the beginning of direct British Crown rule in India.
  • The Government of India Act 1858 transferred the control of India from the Company to the British Crown.
  • The British introduced several reforms, such as the railway systemtelegraph, and judicial systems, which had lasting impacts on India.
  • However, the economic policies of the British led to famines, poverty, and the decline of traditional Indian industries.
  • The struggle for Indian independence gained momentum in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in India gaining independence in 1947.

VI. The Significance of the Battle

The Battle of Plassey as a turning point in modern Indian history

  • The Battle of Plassey, fought on 23rd June 1757, was a pivotal moment in Indian history, marking the beginning of British colonial dominance in the Indian subcontinent.
  • The conflict was between the British East India Company and the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj-ud-Daulah, with the British emerging victorious.
  • This victory was not just a military triumph but had far-reaching political, economic, and social implications:
    • Political Implications: The British East India Company gained control over Bengal, Bihar, and Orissa, which were some of the richest provinces in India. This gave them a strong foothold to expand their territories further in the coming years.
    • Economic Implications: The victory allowed the British to establish a monopoly over trade and commerce in the region. They imposed heavy taxes, manipulated trade policies, and exploited the rich resources of Bengal for their benefit.
    • Social Implications: The British introduced new administrative and legal systems, which were vastly different from the traditional Indian systems. This led to a cultural shift and changed the social fabric of the region.

The consolidation of British rule in India

  • After the Battle of Plassey, the British East India Company adopted a series of strategies to strengthen its hold over India:
    • Doctrine of Lapse: Introduced by Lord Dalhousie, this policy stated that any princely state under the protection of the British would automatically be annexed if the ruler died without a male heir.
    • Subsidiary Alliances: The British formed alliances with various princely states. In return for military support, these states had to accept British political agents, effectively reducing their autonomy.
    • Direct Administration: Areas directly under British control saw the introduction of English as the medium of instruction, the establishment of railways, telegraphs, and post offices, and the implementation of British laws and regulations.
    • Economic Policies: The British introduced new land revenue systems, such as the Permanent Settlement and Ryotwari system, which often led to economic hardships for the local population.
    • Cultural and Social Reforms: The British introduced reforms like the abolition of sati and the promotion of widow remarriage. While some of these reforms were progressive, they were often seen as interference in traditional Indian customs.

The decline of French ambitions in the Indian subcontinent

  • The mid-18th century saw intense rivalry between the British and the French for control over Indian territories.
  • The British victory at Plassey significantly diminished French ambitions in India. While the French had earlier established strongholds in places like Pondicherry and Chandernagore, their influence began to wane post-Plassey.
  • Several subsequent battles and treaties, such as the Treaty of Paris (1763), further curtailed French territorial ambitions in India.
  • The British systematically reduced French influence by taking over their territories and limiting their trading rights.
  • By the early 19th century, the French had been effectively sidelined, and British dominance in the Indian subcontinent was firmly established.

VII. The Socio-Economic Impact

Changes in the Economic Policies under British Rule

  • Introduction of Land Revenue Systems: The British introduced various land revenue systems, such as the Permanent Settlement, Ryotwari, and Mahalwari systems. These systems transformed the agrarian structure and led to the emergence of new classes like zamindars and moneylenders.
  • Commercialization of Agriculture: The British promoted the cultivation of cash crops like indigo, tea, and jute over food crops. This shift had significant implications for the Indian agrarian economy, leading to famines and food shortages in many regions.
  • Railways and Infrastructure: The establishment of railways, telegraphs, and postal services facilitated the movement of goods and communication. However, these were primarily set up to serve British economic interests, enabling them to transport raw materials from the interiors to the ports for export.
  • Monetary Policies and Banking: The British introduced a uniform currency system, replacing the diverse currency systems that existed in pre-colonial India. This led to the emergence of modern banking institutions, but also increased India’s economic dependency on Britain.

Impact on the Local Industries and Trade

  • Decline of Traditional Industries: The influx of cheap British manufactured goods, especially textiles, led to the decline of traditional Indian industries. Handloom weavers, for instance, faced severe hardships due to the competition from machine-made textiles.
  • Shift in Trade Patterns: Before the British rule, India had a favorable balance of trade. However, under British rule, India became an exporter of raw materials and an importer of finished goods, leading to an unfavorable trade balance.
  • Exploitative Economic Policies: The British imposed high tariffs on Indian goods while allowing British goods to enter India with minimal or no duties. This policy severely hampered the growth of indigenous industries.
  • Deindustrialization: The policies of the British led to the deindustrialization of India. Traditional industries like shipbuilding, which once flourished, faced a decline due to British policies favoring their own industries.

Socio-Cultural Changes in Bengal and India at Large

  • Introduction of English Education: The British introduced English education, leading to the emergence of a new class of educated Indians. This class played a crucial role in the Indian freedom struggle and the socio-cultural renaissance in Bengal.
  • Reform Movements: The 19th century witnessed several reform movements like the Brahmo Samaj in Bengal, which aimed at reforming the Indian society from various social evils and practices.
  • Impact on Art and Culture: The British rule influenced Indian art and culture. While there was an appreciation for Indian classical arts, new forms like the Company style of painting also emerged, which was a fusion of Indian and European styles.
  • Legal and Social Reforms: The British introduced several legal reforms, such as the abolition of sati and the legalization of widow remarriage. These reforms, though initiated by the British, were also the result of efforts by Indian reformers.
  • Religious and Social Divide: The British policy of “divide and rule” sowed seeds of division between different religious and social groups in India. This had long-term implications for the socio-political fabric of the country.
  • Urbanization: Cities like Calcutta (now Kolkata) in Bengal became major urban centers during British rule. These cities became hubs of political activities, cultural exchanges, and economic activities.

VIII. The Legacy of the Battle

The Battle of Plassey in Modern India’s Memory

  • Battle of Plassey, a pivotal event in Indian history.
  • Marked the beginning of British colonial dominance.
  • Often taught in Indian schools as a significant historical event.
  • Commemorated in various forms, including literature, art, and monuments.
  • Some view it as a symbol of betrayal, referencing Mir Jafar’s role.
  • Others see it as a lesson in strategy, diplomacy, and the importance of unity.

Role in Shaping India’s Colonial History

  • Laid the foundation for the British Raj in India.
  • Enabled the British East India Company to establish control over vast territories.
  • Set the stage for subsequent battles and annexations by the British.
  • Resulted in significant political, economic, and social changes in India.
  • The British introduced new administrative, legal, and educational systems.
  • English language and Western education became prominent.
  • Railways, telegraph, and other infrastructures were introduced.

Decline of French Ambitions

  • The Battle of Plassey diminished French hopes of establishing a stronghold in India.
  • The British victory ensured their dominance over the French.
  • Marked the decline of French colonial ambitions in the Indian subcontinent.
  • The British and the French continued to engage in battles, but the British mostly emerged victorious.
  • The French were eventually confined to a few territories like Pondicherry.

Significance in Indian Historiography

  • Historians often debate the causes, consequences, and significance of the Battle.
  • Some argue it was not just military prowess but also diplomacy and strategy that led to the British victory.
  • The battle’s legacy is intertwined with discussions on colonialism, nationalism, and India’s struggle for independence.
  • It serves as a reference point for understanding the broader colonial history of India.
  • The battle’s lessons emphasize the importance of unity, strategy, and the consequences of internal divisions.

Depictions of the Battle in Literature, Art, and Cinema

  • Literature: Over the years, the Battle of Plassey has been a subject of numerous literary works. Novels, poems, and historical accounts have painted vivid pictures of the events leading up to the battle, the strategies employed, and the aftermath.
    • Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay’s novel “Anandamath” indirectly references the battle, showcasing the rise of nationalism in Bengal.
    • The battle has also been mentioned in various historical accounts and research papers, emphasizing its significance in shaping the course of Indian history.
  • Art: The Battle of Plassey has been immortalized in several paintings and artworks.
    • Paintings from the 18th and 19th centuries often depict the key moments of the battle, with Siraj ud-Daulah and Robert Clive as central figures.
    • These artworks not only capture the intensity of the battle but also provide insights into the attire, weapons, and strategies used during that era.
  • Cinema: The cinematic world has also taken inspiration from the Battle of Plassey.
    • Films and documentaries have portrayed the events, decisions, and key personalities associated with the battle.
    • The portrayal of the battle in cinema has played a role in educating the masses about this pivotal event in Indian history.

The Myths and Legends Associated with the Battle

  • Over the years, several myths and legends have been associated with the Battle of Plassey.
    • One such myth is the alleged betrayal by Mir Jafar, which is believed to have turned the tide of the battle in favor of the British. However, historical accounts suggest that while Mir Jafar did switch allegiances, the outcome of the battle was influenced by various factors.
    • Another legend speaks of the valor and bravery of the Indian soldiers, who, despite being outnumbered, fought valiantly against the British forces.
  • The battle is also surrounded by tales of espionage, deceit, and secret negotiations, adding layers of intrigue to the historical event.

The Battle’s Influence on Indian Nationalism and Freedom Struggle

  • The Battle of Plassey holds a significant place in the annals of Indian history, primarily because of its influence on the rise of Indian nationalism and the freedom struggle.
    • The battle marked the beginning of British dominance in India, which eventually led to the colonization of the entire subcontinent. This colonization played a pivotal role in igniting the flames of nationalism among Indians.
    • The aftermath of the battle saw the imposition of British policies and regulations, which were often detrimental to the Indian populace. This further fueled the desire for independence and self-rule.
  • The Battle of Plassey also served as a lesson for future generations. It highlighted the consequences of internal conflicts and the importance of unity in the face of external threats.
    • Leaders of the Indian freedom struggle, such as Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, often referenced the battle to emphasize the need for a united front against colonial rule.
  • The battle’s influence can also be seen in the formation of various nationalist movements and organizations that aimed to free India from British rule. The lessons learned from the Battle of Plassey were instrumental in shaping the strategies and ideologies of these movements.

X. Conclusion

The Long-Term Implications of the Battle of Plassey for India

  • Establishment of British Power: The Battle of Plassey marked the beginning of British dominance in India. It paved the way for the British East India Company to establish itself as a major political power in the subcontinent.
  • Economic Exploitation: Following the battle, the British imposed heavy taxes and took control of revenue collection. This led to economic hardships for the local population and drained India’s wealth.
  • Cultural and Social Changes: The British introduced Western education, legal systems, and administrative structures. While this led to modernization in some areas, it also resulted in the erosion of traditional Indian values and systems.
  • Political Reorganization: The territories and kingdoms in India underwent significant reorganization. Many local rulers lost their autonomy, and India was gradually integrated into a centralized British-administered territory.

Reflection on the Lessons of History and Their Relevance Today

  • Importance of Unity: The divisions among Indian rulers and the lack of a united front against foreign invaders played a role in the British victory. This underscores the importance of unity in the face of external threats.
  • Economic Independence: The economic exploitation by the British highlights the significance of economic self-reliance and the dangers of foreign economic dominance.
  • Cultural Preservation: The erosion of Indian cultural values during British rule serves as a reminder of the importance of preserving and promoting one’s cultural heritage in the face of globalization.

The Battle of Plassey’s Place in Global History

  • Beginning of Colonial Era: The Battle of Plassey is often seen as the starting point of the colonial era in South Asia. It set the stage for the British Empire’s expansion in the region.
  • Impact on Global Trade: With control over India, the British East India Company gained access to valuable resources and trade routes, strengthening Britain’s position in global trade.
  • Influence on Colonial Strategies: The strategies employed by the British in the Battle of Plassey, such as forming alliances with local rulers and exploiting internal divisions, were replicated in other parts of the world.
  1. Analyze the significance of the Battle of Plassey in shaping the socio-economic landscape of Bengal and its implications for India as a whole. (250 words)
  2. Discuss the portrayal of the Battle of Plassey in popular culture, including literature, art, and cinema. How have myths and legends influenced the perception of the battle in the context of Indian nationalism and the freedom struggle? (250 words)
  3. Examine the strategic maneuvers and decisions that led to the British victory in the Battle of Plassey. How did this battle pave the way for the consolidation of British rule in India and the decline of French ambitions in the Indian subcontinent? (250 words)

Table Charts for Comparative Analysis

Strategies of the British and the Nawab

AspectBritish StrategyNawab’s Strategy
Military TacticsUtilized superior artillery and naval power.Relied on traditional warfare methods and a larger army.
AlliancesFormed covert alliances with disgruntled members of the Nawab’s court, like Mir Jafar.Lacked strong alliances due to internal dissent and mistrust.
IntelligenceHad better intelligence and used spies to gather information about the Nawab’s plans.Was not fully aware of the extent of betrayal within his own ranks.
Economic LeverageUsed their control over trade and finances to exert pressure.Dependent on local revenues, which were affected by British trade policies.
DiplomacyEngaged in diplomatic tactics to create divisions among the Nawab’s supporters.Failed to recognize the depth of British diplomatic maneuvers.
Use of Local DiscontentExploited the dissatisfaction of local leaders and officials against the Nawab.Did not address the grievances of key officials, leading to betrayals.

Roles of key figures in the Battle of Plassey

Key FigureRole & Contribution
Siraj-ud-DaulahLast independent Nawab of Bengal. Initiated the battle against the British due to their growing influence.
Robert CliveBritish military officer who led the East India Company’s forces. Mastermind behind the British strategy.
Mir JafarCommander of Nawab’s army who betrayed Siraj-ud-Daulah. Became the puppet Nawab post the battle.
OmichundWealthy merchant who played a double role, trying to negotiate between both sides.
ManikchandOfficer in charge of Calcutta’s fortifications who betrayed Siraj-ud-Daulah during the battle.
Rai DurlabhTrusted advisor of Siraj-ud-Daulah who later shifted allegiance to the British.


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