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History (Optional) Notes, Mindmaps & Related Current Affairs

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  2. FREE Samples
    4 Submodules
    1. Sources
    9 Submodules
  4. 2. Pre-history and Proto-history
    3 Submodules
  5. 3. Indus Valley Civilization
    8 Submodules
  6. 4. Megalithic Cultures
    3 Submodules
  7. 5. Aryans and Vedic Period
    8 Submodules
  8. 6. Period of Mahajanapadas
    10 Submodules
  9. 7. Mauryan Empire
    7 Submodules
  10. 8. Post – Mauryan Period
    7 Submodules
  11. 9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India
    9 Submodules
  12. 10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas
    14 Submodules
  13. 11. The Regional States during the Gupta Era
    18 Submodules
  14. 12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History
    9 Submodules
    13. Early Medieval India (750-1200)
    9 Submodules
  16. 14. Cultural Traditions in India (750-1200)
    11 Submodules
  17. 15. The Thirteenth Century
    2 Submodules
  18. 16. The Fourteenth Century
    6 Submodules
  19. 17. Administration, Society, Culture, Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
    13 Submodules
  20. 18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy
    14 Submodules
  21. 19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture
    3 Submodules
  22. 20. Akbar
    8 Submodules
  23. 21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century
    7 Submodules
  24. 22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
    11 Submodules
  25. 23. Culture in the Mughal Empire
    8 Submodules
  26. 24. The Eighteenth Century
    7 Submodules
    1. European Penetration into India
    6 Submodules
  28. 2. British Expansion in India
    4 Submodules
  29. 3. Early Structure of the British Raj
    9 Submodules
  30. 4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule
    12 Submodules
  31. 5. Social and Cultural Developments
    7 Submodules
  32. 6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas
    8 Submodules
  33. 7. Indian Response to British Rule
    8 Submodules
  34. 8. Indian Nationalism - Part I
    11 Submodules
  35. 9. Indian Nationalism - Part II
    13 Submodules
  36. 10. Constitutional Developments in Colonial India between 1858 and 1935
  37. 11. Other strands in the National Movement (Revolutionaries & the Left)
  38. 12. Politics of Separatism
  39. 13. Consolidation as a Nation
  40. 14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947
  41. 15. Economic development and political change
    16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas
  43. 17. Origins of Modern Politics
  44. 18. Industrialization
  45. 19. Nation-State System
  46. 20. Imperialism and Colonialism
  47. 21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution
  48. 22. World Wars
  49. 23. The World after World War II
  50. 24. Liberation from Colonial Rule
  51. 25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment
  52. 26. Unification of Europe
  53. 27. Disintegration of the Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World
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1. Introduction

Background of classical music in Mughal India

  • Cooperation between Hindus and Muslims led to the emergence of classical music in Mughal India.
  • Indian music gained prominence in the Sultanate’s court circles during the 14th century, with even orthodox rulers like Firuz Tughlaq becoming music patrons.

Influence of the Bhakti movement on North Indian music

  • The Bhakti movement greatly influenced and sustained the development of music in North India.
  • Bhakti saints’ writings were often composed using different ragas and surs, contributing to the musical landscape.
  • Swami Haridas, a prominent figure in Vrindavan, played a significant role in promoting music.

Patronage of music in courts, temples, and Sufi gatherings

  • Music found patronage in courts, temples, and Sufi gatherings.
  • Rulers of provincial kingdoms in the 15th and 16th centuries, like Raja Man Singh of Gwalior, were notable music patrons.
  • Raja Man Singh’s contributions included creating new melodies collected in “Man Kautuhal,” aiding the growth and perfection of Dhrupad, a variant style of North Indian music.

2. Music in the Sultanate Period

Indian music in court circles during the 14th century

  • Indian classical music had established itself in the court circles of the Sultanate during the 14th century.
  • Fusion of Indian music with Persian music led to the development of new styles and forms.

Patronage of music by rulers like Firuz Tughlaq

  • Even orthodox rulers like Firuz Tughlaq patronized music during the Sultanate period.
  • Cooperation between Hindus and Muslims in the field of music was evident during this time.

The Sultanate period witnessed the convergence of Indian and Persian musical traditions in court circles, resulting in the emergence of innovative styles and forms. Despite their orthodox beliefs, rulers like Firuz Tughlaq recognized the cultural significance of music and extended patronage to musicians. This era laid the groundwork for the subsequent growth of classical music in the Mughal era.

3. Regional Kingdoms and Music

Raja Man Singh of Gwalior as a skilled musician and patron

  • Raja Man Singh of Gwalior (1486-1517) was a skilled musician and patron of musicians.
  • Credited with creating new melodies, collected in a work called Man Kautuhal.
  • Played a distinguished role in the growth and perfection of Dhrupad, a variant style of North Indian music.

Development of Dhrupad style in North Indian music

  • Dhrupad style in North Indian music evolved during the 15th and 16th centuries.
  • Raja Man Singh of Gwalior contributed significantly to its growth and perfection.
  • Musicians like Tansen, trained under Swami Haridas and prominent in Akbar’s court, further promoted the Dhrupad style.

Regional kingdoms played a pivotal role in nurturing and advancing music in India. Raja Man Singh of Gwalior, both a musician and patron, contributed significantly to the development of the Dhrupad style in North Indian music. Collaborations with figures like Tansen further propelled the evolution of Indian classical music.

4. Music in Akbar’s Court

Akbar’s fondness for music and patronage of musicians

  • Akbar, the Mughal emperor, had a strong affinity for music and supported musicians.
  • Abu’l-Fazl’s Ain-i-Akbari indicates the presence of 36 high-grade musicians in Akbar’s court.
  • Akbar himself was knowledgeable about music, studying Hindu vocalization under Lal Kalawant.

Influence of Swami Haridas and Tansen in Akbar’s court

  • Swami Haridas, from Vrindavan, was Tansen’s mentor and a notable figure in Akbar’s court.
  • Tansen, a renowned musician, was trained by Swami Haridas and excelled in the Dhrupad style.
  • Tansen’s presence contributed to the audibility of the empire among the population.

Merging of Hindu and Muslim music traditions

  • Akbar’s court witnessed the convergence of Hindu and Muslim music traditions.
  • This amalgamation led to significant advancements in instrumental and vocal arts.

Invention of Raga Deepak and other famous ragas by Tansen

  • Tansen, celebrated in Akbar’s court, is credited with inventing Raga Deepak and several other famous ragas.
  • Notable among these are Miyan ki Malhar, Miyan ki Todi, Mian ki Mand, Mian ka Sarang, and Darbari.
  • These ragas have become integral to the Hindustani musical tradition.

The Mughal Emperor Akbar’s profound love for music fostered an environment of patronage for musicians in his court. Swami Haridas and Tansen played pivotal roles, with Tansen’s contributions including the invention of significant ragas. The blend of Hindu and Muslim musical elements during Akbar’s reign led to artistic growth and the formation of enduring musical traditions.

5. Tansen: Life and Contributions

Early life and training under Swami Haridas

  • Tansen, born as Ramtanu Pandey in 1493, was a renowned Hindustani classical music composer, vocalist, and musician.
  • Under the guidance of legendary composer Swami Haridas from Vrindavan, he specialized in the Dhrupad style of singing.

Tansen’s compositions and influence on Hindustani classical music

  • Tansen composed numerous songs in Hindi and innovated new ragas that endure to this day.
  • He is the originator of notable ragas such as Miyan ki Malhar, Miyan ki Todi, Mian ki Mand, Mian ka Sarang, and Darbari.
  • Tansen authored significant musical texts like Sangeeta Sara and Rajmala.

Tansen’s legacy and impact on future generations of musicians

  • Tansen’s influence was pivotal in shaping the contemporary Hindustani classical ethos.
  • Virtually all gharanas (music schools) of Hindustani classical music have a link to Tansen’s lineage.
  • His advancements in the rabab, a plucked string instrument, laid the foundation for the creation of the sarod, a popular instrument known for its vocal-like qualities.

Tansen’s journey in the realm of Hindustani classical music commenced with training under Swami Haridas and continued with his remarkable compositions. His contributions and innovations left an indelible mark on Hindustani classical music, affecting subsequent generations of musicians. Tansen’s legacy is woven into the fabric of various gharanas, and his impact on musical instruments like the sarod is still felt today.

6. Music in Shahjahan’s Court

Shahjahan as a patron of music and a singer

  • Shahjahan, the Mughal emperor, embraced music and personally engaged in singing.
  • His melodious voice reportedly moved Sufi saints to emotional states.

Shahjahan’s court mirrored the Mughal tradition of supporting and nurturing music. Shahjahan, in addition to being a music patron, had a sweet singing voice that had the power to evoke strong emotions in Sufi saints. This sustained the legacy of Mughal rulers promoting and cherishing music within their courts.

7. Music in Aurangzeb’s Court

Aurangzeb’s initial patronage of music and later banishment of singers

  • Aurangzeb, the Mughal emperor, initially supported music and played the veena during the first decade of his rule.
  • However, he later banned singers from his court due to his growing puritanical beliefs and economic concerns.
  • Despite the banishment of singers, instrumental music continued, and numerous books on music were produced during his reign.

Continued patronage of music by royal family members and nobles

  • Members of the royal family, including those in the harem, and many nobles continued to patronize music during Aurangzeb’s reign.
  • This ensured the survival and development of music despite the emperor’s restrictions.

The reign of Aurangzeb witnessed a shift in the patronage of music. Initially supportive, he later banned singers from his court due to his religious and economic convictions. However, instrumental music persisted, and the royal family members and nobles continued to support the art form, maintaining its vitality during this period.

8. Music in 18th Century Mughal India

Encouragement of North Indian music at the court of Emperor Muhammad Shah

  • In the 18th century, the court of Mughal Emperor Muhammad Shah fostered North Indian music.
  • Prominent musicians like Sadarang and Adarang, renowned Dhrupad masters, were also instrumental in training students in the Khayal style.

Development of Khayal style and other new forms of music

  • The Khayal style of music gained popularity during this era, characterized by its lyrical themes and sensual approach.
  • Emperor Muhammad Shah himself composed Khayals using the pen name Rangila Piya.
  • This period also witnessed the emergence of new musical forms like Tarana, Dadra, and Ghazal.

Popularization of tabla and sitar

  • The 18th century saw the rise in popularity of musical instruments such as the tabla and sitar.
  • Folk musical traditions were integrated into courtly music, including the use of Thumri with folk scales and Tappa, derived from camel driver songs in Punjab.

The 18th century Mughal India witnessed the flourishing of North Indian music under Emperor Muhammad Shah’s patronage. The Khayal style and new musical forms gained prominence, and the era marked the ascent of the tabla and sitar as well as the incorporation of folk elements into courtly music.

9. Music in 19th Century Mughal India

Influence of British colonizers and the “Company School” movement

  • During the early 19th century, the presence of British colonizers and affluent Anglo-Indians influenced Mughal India’s art scene.
  • The emergence of the “Company School” movement led to the creation of Western-style portraits by local painters, portraying subjects like musicians and courtesans.
  • Notably, Colonel James Skinner, an influential Anglo-Indian in Delhi, was closely associated with musicians and dancers, commissioning a renowned artist to create an album featuring their portraits.

Patronage of musicians and dancers by Anglo-Indians

  • Anglo-Indians, exemplified by figures like Colonel James Skinner, continued to support musicians and dancers throughout the 19th century.
  • This patronage played a vital role in sustaining the cultural heritage of music and dance in Mughal India during this era.

The 19th century marked a period of interaction between British colonizers, Anglo-Indians, and Mughal India’s music and art scenes. The “Company School” movement’s blend of Western and Indian styles produced unique artworks, while the patronage of musicians and dancers by Anglo-Indians contributed to the preservation and continuation of Mughal India’s rich musical traditions.

X. Conclusion

Legacy of Mughal India on classical music

  • Mughal India played a significant role in the development and evolution of classical music in the Indian subcontinent.
  • The patronage of music by Mughal emperors and nobles led to the creation of new ragas, styles, and forms of music.
  • The fusion of Indian and Persian musical styles during the Mughal era contributed to the richness of Indian classical music.

Continued influence of Mughal-era music in modern Indian classical music, such as Hindustani music

  • The influence of Mughal-era music can still be seen in modern Indian classical music, particularly in the Hindustani music tradition.
  • Many of the ragas and compositions created during the Mughal era continue to be performed and celebrated today.
  • The legacy of Mughal India’s patronage of music has ensured the survival and development of classical music in the Indian subcontinent.

In conclusion, the legacy of Mughal India on classical music is immense, with its patronage and support for musicians and composers shaping the development of various forms and styles. The continued influence of Mughal-era music can be seen in modern Indian classical music, particularly in the Hindustani tradition, as many of the ragas and compositions from that time are still celebrated and performed today. The rich and diverse musical heritage of Mughal India has left a lasting impact on the world of classical music.

  1. Analyze the impact of the Bhakti movement on the development of North Indian music during the Mughal era. (250 words)
  2. Discuss the role of regional kingdoms, such as Gwalior under Raja Man Singh, in the growth and perfection of Dhrupad style in North Indian music. (250 words)
  3. Compare and contrast the patronage of music by Mughal emperors Akbar, Shahjahan, and Aurangzeb, and its influence on the evolution of Indian classical music. (250 words)


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