20% Special Sale Ends Today! Hurry Up!!!
Back to Course

History (Optional) Notes, Mindmaps & Related Current Affairs

0% Complete
0/0 Steps
  1. INSTRUCTIONS & SAMPLES

    How to use
  2. FREE Samples
    4 Submodules
  3. PAPER I: ANCIENT INDIA
    1. Sources
    9 Submodules
  4. 2. Pre-history and Proto-history
    3 Submodules
  5. 3. Indus Valley Civilization
    8 Submodules
  6. 4. Megalithic Cultures
    3 Submodules
  7. 5. Aryans and Vedic Period
    8 Submodules
  8. 6. Period of Mahajanapadas
    10 Submodules
  9. 7. Mauryan Empire
    7 Submodules
  10. 8. Post – Mauryan Period
    7 Submodules
  11. 9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India
    9 Submodules
  12. 10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas
    14 Submodules
  13. 11. The Regional States during the Gupta Era
    18 Submodules
  14. 12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History
    9 Submodules
  15. PAPER 1: MEDIEVAL INDIA
    13. Early Medieval India (750-1200)
    9 Submodules
  16. 14. Cultural Traditions in India (750-1200)
    11 Submodules
  17. 15. The Thirteenth Century
    2 Submodules
  18. 16. The Fourteenth Century
    6 Submodules
  19. 17. Administration, Society, Culture, Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries
    13 Submodules
  20. 18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century – Political Developments and Economy
    14 Submodules
  21. 19. The Fifteenth and early Sixteenth Century – Society and Culture
    3 Submodules
  22. 20. Akbar
    8 Submodules
  23. 21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century
    7 Submodules
  24. 22. Economy and Society in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries
    11 Submodules
  25. 23. Culture in the Mughal Empire
    8 Submodules
  26. 24. The Eighteenth Century
    7 Submodules
  27. PAPER-II: MODERN INDIA
    1. European Penetration into India
    6 Submodules
  28. 2. British Expansion in India
    4 Submodules
  29. 3. Early Structure of the British Raj
    7 Submodules
  30. 4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule
    12 Submodules
  31. 5. Social and Cultural Developments
    7 Submodules
  32. 6. Social and Religious Reform movements in Bengal and Other Areas
    8 Submodules
  33. 7. Indian Response to British Rule
    8 Submodules
  34. 8. Indian Nationalism - Part I
    4 Submodules
  35. 9. Indian Nationalism - Part II
  36. 10. Constitutional Developments in Colonial India between 1858 and 1935
  37. 11. Other strands in the National Movement (Revolutionaries & the Left)
  38. 12. Politics of Separatism
  39. 13. Consolidation as a Nation
  40. 14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947
  41. 15. Economic development and political change
  42. PAPER-II: WORLD HISTORY
    16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas
  43. 17. Origins of Modern Politics
  44. 18. Industrialization
  45. 19. Nation-State System
  46. 20. Imperialism and Colonialism
  47. 21. Revolution and Counter-Revolution
  48. 22. World Wars
  49. 23. The World after World War II
  50. 24. Liberation from Colonial Rule
  51. 25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment
  52. 26. Unification of Europe
  53. 27. Disintegration of the Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World
Module Progress
0% Complete

I. Introduction

Background of European Settlements in India

  • European and Indian commercial contact has a long history, but it was in the late 15th century that India began to be seen as an attractive destination by Europeans.
  • Initially, trading Europeans had only commercial interests, but over time, they became involved in political affairs and established colonies in India.
  • This led to rivalry among European powers, initially for commercial gains and later for political gains.
  • Ultimately, the British established their rule in India.
  • There were five European companies that established their trading centers at various locations in coastal India: Portuguese East India Company, English East India Company, Dutch East India Company, Danish East India Company, and French East India Company.

Motivations for European Exploration and Trade in India

  • Historians generally recognize three motives for European exploration and colonization in the New World: God, gold, and glory.
  • Religious motivations played a role, as well as seeking a water passage to the wealthy cities of the East and the exotic and wealthy Spice Islands in modern-day Indonesia.
  • The lure of profit pushed explorers to seek new trade routes to the Spice Islands and to eliminate Muslim middlemen.
  • European competition for global dominance also played a role in motivating exploration and trade in India.

Overview of the Portuguese, Dutch, English, and French Settlements

  • Portuguese Settlements: The Portuguese State of India, also known as Portuguese India, was founded six years after Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India. It consisted of several isolated tracts, including Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, and Nagar Haveli.
  • Dutch Settlements: The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was a chartered company established in 1602 by the States General of the Netherlands. Dutch India consisted of the settlements and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company on the Indian subcontinent.
  • English Settlements: The East India Company (EIC) was an English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600 and dissolved in 1874. The company seized control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent and colonized parts of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong.
  • French Settlements: The French East India Company was a trading company formed for the exploitation of trade with East and Southeast Asia and India. The company traded in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies (the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), and later with East Asia.
The Early European Settlements in India

II. The Arrival of Europeans in India

Vasco da Gama’s Discovery of the Sea Route to India

  • Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India during the reign of King Manuel I in 1495-1499.
  • Da Gama sailed from Lisbon, Portugal, in July 1497, rounded the Cape of Good Hope, and anchored at Malindi on the east coast of Africa.
  • With the aid of an Indian merchant he met in Malindi, da Gama set off across the Indian Ocean and reached Kappakadavu, near Calicut (present-day Kerala, India), on May 17, 1498.
  • This voyage initiated Portuguese maritime trade in the Indian Ocean and led to the establishment of Portuguese settlements in Goa and Bombay.

The Establishment of Portuguese Settlements

  • The Portuguese State of India, also known as Portuguese India, was founded six years after Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India.
  • The capital of Portuguese India served as the governing center for a string of military forts and trading posts scattered throughout the Indian Ocean.
  • The Portuguese established their first territorial possession in Asia, Goa, in 1510, under the leadership of Afonso de Albuquerque.
  • Portuguese India consisted of several isolated tracts, including Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, and Nagar Haveli.

The Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India Company

  • The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was a chartered company established on March 20, 1602, by the States General of the Netherlands, amalgamating existing companies.
  • The VOC was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies (the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), and later with East Asia.
  • The Dutch West India Company (WIC) was a chartered company of Dutch merchants and foreign investors, founded in 1621.
  • The WIC was organized similarly to the VOC and had five offices, called chambers, in Amsterdam, Rotterdam, Hoorn, Middelburg, and Groningen.
  • The WIC’s main goal was to carry out economic warfare against Spain and Portugal by striking at their colonies in the West Indies, South America, and the west coast of Africa.

The English East India Company

  • The East India Company (EIC) was an English, and later British, joint-stock company founded in 1600 and dissolved in 1874.
  • The EIC was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies (the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), and later with East Asia.
  • The company seized control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent and colonized parts of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong.
  • At its peak, the EIC was the largest corporation in the world by various measures.

The French East India Company

  • The French East India Company was a trading company formed for the exploitation of trade with East and Southeast Asia and India.
  • The French East India Company was incorporated by royal charter on December 31, 1600.
  • The company traded in the Indian Ocean region, initially with the East Indies (the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia), and later with East Asia.
  • The French East India Company competed with other European trading companies, such as the Dutch East India Company, the English East India Company, and the Portuguese East India Company.

III. The Expansion of European Settlements

Portuguese Expansion and Decline

  • The Portuguese were the first Europeans to establish a presence in India, following Vasco da Gama’s discovery of the sea route to India in 1498.
  • Portuguese India, also known as the Estado da Índia, was established in 1505 and included territories such as Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, and Nagar Haveli.
  • The decline of Portuguese power in India began in the 17th century, due to several factors, including the rise of other European powers, such as the Dutch and the British, and the expansion of the Mughal Empire in India.
  • Other reasons for the decline of Portuguese power in India include the small size of Portugal, which struggled to maintain a trading colony so far away, and the rigid religious policies of the Portuguese, which alienated both Hindus and Muslims in India.
  • The Portuguese presence in India lasted until 1961, when the Indian government captured Goa, Daman, and Diu.

Dutch Expansion and Decline

  • The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was established in 1602 and began trading in India in 1605, with their first settlement in Masulipatam (present-day Machilipatnam, Andhra Pradesh).
  • Dutch India consisted of settlements and trading posts on the Indian subcontinent, with major outposts in Calcutta, Bombay, and Bengal.
  • The Dutch aimed to eliminate Portuguese and British mercantile powers from India and Southeast Asia and were successful in displacing the Portuguese in some areas.
  • The decline of the Dutch East India Company began around 1670, due to factors such as the loss of trade with Japan, faulty business policies, corruption, and surrounding political instability.
  • The Dutch presence in India lasted until 1825, when the British East India Company took control of their territories.

English Expansion and the Establishment of British India

  • The English East India Company (EIC) was founded in 1600 and began trading in India in the early 17th century.
  • The EIC gradually seized control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonized parts of Southeast Asia and Hong Kong, and eventually became the largest corporation in the world.
  • The British Raj, the period of British rule in India, began in 1858 after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and the transfer of power from the EIC to the British Crown.
  • The British Raj extended over almost all present-day India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry.
  • British rule in India lasted until 1947, when India gained independence and was partitioned into the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.

French Expansion and Decline

  • The French East India Company was founded in 1600 and began trading in India in the 17th century.
  • French India, also known as the Établissements français dans l’Inde, was a French colony comprising five geographically separated enclaves on the Indian subcontinent, including Pondicherry, Karikal, Yanam, Mahé, and Chandernagor.
  • The French expansion in India began in 1669, with the acquisition of Pondicherry from the Sultan of Bijapur.
  • The decline of French power in India was due to several factors, including the lack of naval strength compared to the British, the rise of the Dutch and English powers, and the incompetence of French officers.
  • French India was de facto incorporated into the Republic of India in 1950 and 1954, following the end of British rule in India and the transfer of former French settlements to India.

IV. The Impact of European Settlements on Indian Society

Economic Impact

  • European settlements led to the establishment of new trade routes and markets, which increased India’s integration into the global economy.
  • The British East India Company gained control over Indian trade, leading to the exploitation of resources and the disruption of traditional economic systems.
  • The British introduced new agricultural practices, such as commercial crops and land revenue systems, which altered the agrarian economy and led to social dislocation.
  • The British also introduced modern industries, such as railways, telegraphs, and postal services, which facilitated economic growth but also increased India’s dependence on British technology and capital.

Political Impact

  • European settlements led to the decline of indigenous political powers, such as the Mughal Empire, and the rise of new regional powers.
  • The British East India Company gradually gained control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent through a combination of diplomacy, military conquest, and the exploitation of internal divisions.
  • The British introduced new political institutions and practices, such as the rule of law, bureaucracy, and representative government, which had a lasting impact on Indian society.
  • The British also pursued a policy of divide and rule, exacerbating existing social and religious divisions and fostering communal tensions.

Cultural and Religious Impact

  • European settlements exposed India to new ideas and institutions, such as rationalism, liberalism, and humanism, which led to social reforms and the growth of nationalist consciousness.
  • The British introduced Western education and the English language, which facilitated the spread of modern ideas and the emergence of an Indian intelligentsia.
  • The British also pursued a policy of religious toleration, which led to the restructuring of Indian religious traditions and the rise of reform movements and religious fundamentalism.
  • European settlements, particularly the Portuguese, led to the spread of Christianity and the establishment of new religious communities in India.

V. Conflicts and Wars between European Powers in India

The Dutch-Portuguese War (1601-1661)

  • The Dutch-Portuguese War was a global armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Iberian Union and, after 1640, the Portuguese Empire.
  • The war began in 1598 and lasted until 1663.
  • The conflict primarily involved the Dutch companies and fleet invading Portuguese colonies in the Americas, Africa, and the East Indies.
  • The war can be considered an extension of the Eighty Years’ War being fought in Europe at the time between Spain and the Netherlands, as Portugal was in a dynastic union with the Spanish Crown after the War of the Portuguese Succession for most of the conflict.
  • The turning point in the war came in 1625 when a fleet of Spanish and Portuguese ships defeated the Dutch in Salvador, leading to the reconquest of Portuguese possessions captured by the Dutch.
  • The Dutch never regained their power and influence in Malabar after their defeat at the hands of the powerful Martanda Varma, the ruler of Travancore, in the Battle of Colachel in 1741.

The Anglo-French Wars in India

  • The Anglo-French Wars in India were a series of military contests during the 18th century between the British, the French, the Marathas, and Mysore for control of the coastal strip of eastern India from Nellore (north of Madras) southward (the Tamil country).
  • The wars were fought to decide the rivalry between the English and the French and were directly connected with their rivalry in Europe.
  • The Anglo-French conflict in India lasted for nearly 20 years and led to the establishment of British power in India.

The Carnatic Wars (1744-1763)

  • The Carnatic Wars were a series of military conflicts in the middle of the 18th century in India’s coastal Carnatic region, a dependency of Hyderabad State.
  • The conflicts involved numerous nominally independent rulers and their vassals, struggles for succession and territory, and included a diplomatic and military struggle between the French East India Company and the British East India Company.
  • The First Carnatic War (1740–1748) was the Indian theatre of the War of the Austrian Succession and the first of a series of Carnatic Wars that established early British dominance on the east coast of the Indian subcontinent.
  • The Second Carnatic War (1749-1754) saw the French and British East India Companies vying with each other on land for control of their respective trading posts at Madras, Pondicherry, and Cuddalore, while naval forces of France and Britain engaged each other off the coast.
  • The Third Carnatic War (1757-1763) was part of the Seven Years’ War, during which both the French and British sent armies to south India.
  • The French were defeated at Wandiwash in 1760, and the war concluded with the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1763, which returned Chandernagore and Pondichéry to France and allowed the French to have “factories” (trading posts) in India but forbade French traders from administering them.

VI. Relationships between European Powers and Indian Rulers

The Nawabs of Bengal and the East India Company

  • The Nawabs of Bengal were the hereditary rulers of Bengal Subah in Mughal India.
  • The British East India Company established its first factory in Hoogly in 1651 during the subedarship of Shah Shuja, son of Shah Jahan.
  • The relationship between the Nawabs of Bengal and the British East India Company began to change after the Mughal emperor Farukshiyar issued a farman in 1717, granting certain trading rights to the British East India Company in Bengal.
  • The farman allowed the British East India Company to trade in Bengal without paying additional taxes, which led to tensions between the Nawabs and the Company.

Siraj ud-Daulah and the English

  • Siraj ud-Daulah was the last independent Nawab of Bengal, reigning from 1756 to 1757.
  • He was concerned about the growing influence of the British East India Company and demanded the destruction of British fortifications in Calcutta.
  • When his demands were not met, Siraj ud-Daulah attacked and captured Calcutta in 1756.
  • The British, led by Robert Clive, recaptured Calcutta in early 1757.

The Battle of Plassey (1757)

  • The Battle of Plassey was a decisive victory for the British East India Company, led by Robert Clive, over the Nawab of Bengal, Siraj ud-Daulah, and his French allies on June 23, 1757.
  • The victory was made possible by the defection of Mir Jafar, who was Siraj ud-Daulah’s commander in chief.
  • The battle marked the beginning of British control over Bengal and eventually led to the establishment of British rule in India.

The Marathas and the European Powers

  • The Maratha Empire was an early modern Indian empire and later a confederation that controlled large portions of the Indian subcontinent.
  • The Marathas had conflicts with various European powers, including the Portuguese, Dutch, English, and French, as they sought to expand their territories and influence.
  • The European powers often tried to exploit the internal divisions within the Maratha Empire to further their own interests in India.

VII. The Decline of European Settlements in India

The Decline of Portuguese and Dutch Control

  • Portuguese power in India began to decline due to several factors, including their small size as a nation, which made it difficult to maintain their vast colonial holdings.
  • The decline of the Vijayanagara Empire after the Battle of Talikota also impacted Portuguese influence in India.
  • The arrival of the Dutch in Indian waters led to the gradual decline of Portuguese influence, with Goa being blockaded by Dutch fleets in 1603 and 1639, though never captured.
  • The Dutch also faced challenges in India, such as their defeat against Travancore during the Battle of Colachall.
  • The rise of the British in India contributed to the decline of both Portuguese and Dutch presence in the region.

The Rise of British Dominance

  • The British East India Company gradually gained control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent through diplomacy, military conquest, and exploitation of internal divisions.
  • The British Raj, the period of direct British rule over the Indian subcontinent, lasted from 1858 until the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947.
  • British governance of India began with the famine of 1769-70, and there were regular famines in India throughout the duration of British rule.
  • The British introduced new political institutions and practices, such as the rule of law, bureaucracy, and representative government, which had a lasting impact on Indian society.

The Decline of French Influence

  • The French East India Company faced competition from other European trading companies, such as the Dutch East India Company and the English East India Company.
  • The French tried to recover their lost territories and drive the British out of India, but their efforts ultimately failed, culminating in the Siege of Pondicherry in 1761.
  • The French East India Company’s monopoly over French trade with India was ended in 1769, and the company languished until its disappearance during the French Revolution in 1789.
  • The French territories of India were de facto incorporated into the Republic of India in 1950 and 1954.

VIII. The Legacy of European Settlements in India

The establishment of British rule in India

  • British East India Company established control over Bengal in the 18th century.
  • British government replaced the East India Company in 1858, becoming the ‘Paramount’ ruler of India.
  • India regained its independence in 1947, ending nearly 200 years of British rule.

The impact on Indian society, culture, and economy

  • Indian society underwent significant changes after the British came to India.
  • Certain social practices like female infanticide, child marriage, sati, polygamy, and a rigid caste system became more prevalent.
  • British rule transformed India’s economy into a colonial economy, determined by the interests of the British economy.
  • India’s share of the global economy fell from 23% at the beginning of the 18th century to around 3% by the time of independence.
  • Deindustrialization occurred as Indian handloom weaving industry was hit by industrialization in England.
  • Indian handicrafts lost both domestic and foreign markets.
  • Land revenue policies caused hardship to cultivators.
  • Commercialization of agriculture led to the rise of landless laborers.

The struggle for Indian independence

  • Indian independence movement aimed to end British rule in India, lasting from 1857 to 1947.
  • Movement emerged from Bengal and later took root in the Indian National Congress.
  • Key figures in the movement included the Lal Bal Pal triumvirate, Aurobindo Ghosh, and V. O. Chidambaram Pillai.
  • Mahatma Gandhi played a significant role in the movement, particularly through his civil disobedience movement launched by the Salt March in 1930-1931.

Legacy of British rule in India

  • British rule had both positive and negative impacts on Indian society, culture, and economy.
  • Some improvements in Indian society, such as the establishment of modern education and infrastructure, were coincidental or self-serving.
  • The struggle for independence led to the formation of modern India as an independent, democratic, and secular nation.
  • The legacy of colonialism continues to impact India in various ways, including unemployment, famine, poor sanitary conditions, lack of access to education and healthcare, caste-based oppression, religious violence, and gender-based violence.

IX. Conclusion

The Significance of European Settlements in India

  • European settlements in India marked a significant period in the history of the Indian subcontinent.
  • The arrival of Europeans, particularly the British, led to the establishment of new trade routes, markets, and the integration of India into the global economy.
  • European settlements also resulted in the decline of indigenous political powers and the rise of new regional powers.
  • The interactions between European powers and Indian rulers shaped the political, economic, and cultural landscape of India.

The Lasting Effects on Indian History and Society

  • The establishment of British rule in India had a profound impact on Indian society, culture, and economy.
  • British rule led to the introduction of modern education, infrastructure, and political institutions, which continue to shape India today.
  • The struggle for Indian independence, which was influenced by the presence of European settlements, resulted in the formation of modern India as an independent, democratic, and secular nation.
  • The legacy of European settlements, particularly the British rule, continues to impact India in various ways, including issues related to unemployment, famine, poor sanitary conditions, lack of access to education and healthcare, caste-based oppression, religious violence, and gender-based violence.

X. Comparisons

Comparison of European Settlements in India

European PowerArrival in IndiaMajor SettlementsDecline Factors
Portuguese1498Goa, Daman, Diu, Dadra, and Nagar HaveliRise of other European powers, Mughal expansion, small size of Portugal, rigid religious policies
Dutch1602Masulipatam, Calcutta, Bombay, BengalLoss of trade with Japan, faulty business policies, corruption, political instability
English (British)1600Calcutta, Bombay, MadrasN/A (Established British rule in India)
French1600Pondicherry, Karikal, Yanam, Mahé, ChandernagorLack of naval strength, rise of Dutch and English powers, incompetence of French officers

Major Conflicts and Wars between European Powers in India

Conflict/WarEuropean Powers InvolvedYearsOutcome
Dutch-Portuguese WarDutch vs Portuguese1601-1661Decline of Portuguese power, Dutch control over some territories
Anglo-French Wars in IndiaBritish vs FrenchVariousBritish dominance in India
Carnatic WarsBritish vs French1744-1763British victory, decline of French influence

Key Indian Rulers and Their Relationships with European Powers

Indian RulerEuropean PowerRelationship
Nawabs of BengalBritish East India CompanyTensions over trade rights, leading to conflicts
Siraj ud-DaulahEnglishConflict over British fortifications in Calcutta, leading to the Battle of Plassey
MarathasPortuguese, Dutch, English, FrenchConflicts over territorial expansion and influence in India
  1. Analyze the factors that contributed to the decline of Portuguese and Dutch control in India and the rise of British dominance. (250 words)
  2. Examine the impact of European settlements, particularly the British East India Company, on the Indian economy, society, and culture during the colonial period. (250 words)
  3. Discuss the role of Indian rulers, such as the Nawabs of Bengal and the Marathas, in shaping the relationships between European powers and Indian states during the period of European settlements in India. (250 words)

Responses

X
Home Courses Plans Account
20% Special Sale Ends Today! Hurry Up!!!