With reference to Indian history, consider the following statements:

  1. The first Mongol invasion of India happened during the reign of Jalal-ud-din Khalji.
  2. During the reign of Ala-ud-din Khalji, one Mongol assault marched up to Delhi and besieged the city.
  3. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq temporarily lost portions of north-west of his kingdom to Mongols.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 and 2

(b) 2 only

(c) 1 and 3

(d) 3 only


Let’s analyze each statement:

  • Statement 1 is incorrect. The first Mongol invasion of India happened during the reign of Iltutmish in 1221-22, when Genghis Khan reached the Indus river.
  • Statement 2 is correct. During Ala-ud-din Khalji’s reign in 1303, a Mongol army led by Taraghai besieged Delhi for over two months before withdrawing.
  • Statement 3 is incorrect. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq did not lose any territories to the Mongols. In 1327, the Chagatai Mongols invaded and laid siege to Delhi, but lifted it after being paid a huge ransom.

In summary, only statement 2 is correct. The first Mongol invasion occurred during Iltutmish’s reign, while Muhammad Tughlaq averted losing territory by paying ransom. Ala-ud-din Khalji successfully defended Delhi against a major Mongol siege attempt.

Learn more

  • The Delhi Sultanate faced repeated Mongol invasions from Central Asia between the 13th-14th centuries.
  • The Mongols first invaded during Iltutmish’s reign in 1221-22. Jalal-ud-din Khalji also faced an invasion.
  • Seven major invasions occurred during Ala-ud-din Khalji’s reign from 1296-1316. However, he successfully defeated the Mongols each time.
  • In 1327, the Mongols invaded again under Muhammad Tughlaq, besieging Delhi until ransom was paid. No major invasions after this.
  • The Mongols failed to conquer India due to strong resistance from Delhi Sultanate rulers like Ala-ud-din Khalji.
  • Mongol invasions declined after 1335 as their empire weakened and the Delhi Sultanate grew stronger.

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