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United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) – Evolution, Composition, Functions

From Prelims Sureshots > International Relations > International Organisations & Groupings

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN) and serves as a forum where all 193 member states can gather to discuss and coordinate on international issues. Established in 1945 under the UN Charter, the UNGA plays a crucial role in maintaining international peace, security, and cooperation. 

This topic of “United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) – Evolution, Composition, Functions” is important from the perspective of the UPSC IAS Examination, which falls under General Studies Portion.

Purpose and Importance of the UNGA

The primary purpose of the UNGA is to provide a platform where all member states can engage in discussions and negotiations on pressing global issues. The UNGA serves as a parliament of nations, where each country, regardless of its size, wealth, or influence, has an equal voice in the decision-making process. The UNGA’s responsibilities include overseeing the UN budget, appointing non-permanent members to the Security Council, and addressing issues that affect global peace, security, and human rights. By fostering dialogue and cooperation among nations, the UNGA plays a vital role in promoting international peace and security.

Establishment of the UNGA

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) was established in 1945 under the United Nations (UN) Charter, following the end of World War II. The aim was to create an organization that would facilitate international cooperation and prevent the occurrence of another devastating global conflict. The first session of the UNGA took place on October 24, 1945, which is now celebrated as United Nations Day.

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Major Historical Milestones and Events

Throughout its history, the UNGA has witnessed numerous significant milestones and events that have shaped the course of international relations. Some of the most notable events include:

  1. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: In 1948, the UNGA adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, a landmark document that established the fundamental rights and freedoms of all people.

  2. Decolonization: The UNGA played a crucial role in promoting decolonization, with many former colonies gaining independence and joining the UN as member states throughout the 1960s and 1970s.

  3. The Millennium Development Goals: In 2000, the UNGA adopted the Millennium Declaration, which established eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) aimed at addressing global challenges such as poverty, education, and health.

  4. The Sustainable Development Goals: Building on the progress made with the MDGs, the UNGA adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development in 2015, which includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to guide global efforts towards sustainable development.

The Evolution of the UNGA over Time

The UNGA has evolved significantly since its establishment, adapting to the changing dynamics of international relations and the increasing complexity of global challenges. One notable change has been the expansion of membership – from the original 51 founding members in 1945 to 193 member states today.

Moreover, the roles of the UNGA’s main committees have also evolved to address emerging issues and priorities. For instance, the First Committee, initially known as the Political and Security Committee (POLISEC), shifted its focus towards disarmament and international security. Similarly, the Fourth Committee, which previously handled Trusteeship and Decolonization matters, merged with the Special Political Committee during the 1990s to address a broader range of political subjects.

The UNGA’s continued evolution reflects its commitment to adapting and responding to the ever-changing landscape of global challenges and opportunities.

The Structure of the United Nations General Assembly

A. The Composition of the UNGA

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) is a key component of the UN system, and understanding its structure is crucial to grasping its functions and impact on global issues.

1. Member States: The UNGA is composed of 193 member states, each of which has an equal vote in its decision-making process. Membership in the UNGA is based on being a sovereign state and a member of the United Nations.

2. Observers: In addition to member states, the UNGA also includes observers who can participate in its sessions and activities but do not have voting rights. Observers include entities such as the Holy See (Vatican City) and Palestine, as well as various intergovernmental organizations and other entities.

B. The Role of the President of the UNGA

The president of the UNGA plays a crucial role in the functioning of the assembly. Elected annually by the member states, the president is responsible for presiding over the sessions, ensuring the smooth running of debates, and maintaining order during the meetings. The president also represents the UNGA in its relations with other UN organs and outside organizations.

C. The Organization of the UNGA Sessions

Each year, the UNGA holds a regular session, during which it addresses a wide range of issues related to international peace, security, and development.

1. The General Debate: One of the most important aspects of the UNGA session is the General Debate, which takes place over the course of several days. During the General Debate, heads of state and government, as well as other high-level representatives, deliver speeches outlining their country’s position on various global issues and the priorities for the upcoming year. This provides an opportunity for member states to express their views and engage in dialogue with other nations.

2. Thematic Discussions and High-Level Meetings: In addition to the General Debate, the UNGA also holds thematic discussions and high-level meetings on specific topics of global concern. These events provide a platform for in-depth analysis and debate, allowing member states to collaborate on solutions to pressing international challenges. Such meetings can result in resolutions and action plans that guide the work of the United Nations and its member states in addressing these issues.

The Subsidiary Organs of the United Nations General Assembly

Understanding the subsidiary organs of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) is crucial to comprehending its role and functions in addressing global issues.

A. Overview of the Subsidiary Organs

The UNGA’s subsidiary organs are divided into various categories, including committees, commissions, boards, councils, panels, working groups, and others. These bodies are responsible for addressing specific areas of concern and facilitating the work of the General Assembly.

B. The Main Committees

There are six main committees within the UNGA, each focusing on different aspects of global issues:

  1. First Committee: Disarmament and International Security (DISEC) – This committee deals with disarmament and related international security questions.

  2. Second Committee: Economic and Financial (ECOFIN) – This committee focuses on economic questions and global financial issues.

  3. Third Committee: Social, Cultural, and Humanitarian (SOCHUM) – This committee addresses social and humanitarian issues, including human rights and cultural matters.

  4. Fourth Committee: Special Political and Decolonization (SPECPOL) – This committee handles a variety of political subjects not covered by the First Committee, as well as decolonization matters.

  5. Fifth Committee: Administrative and Budgetary – This committee is responsible for the administration and budget of the United Nations.

  6. Sixth Committee: Legal – This committee deals with legal matters and the development of international law.

C. Other Committees

In addition to the main committees, there are other important committees within the UNGA, such as:

  1. Credentials Committee – This committee ensures that the diplomatic credentials of all UN representatives are in order. It consists of nine Member States elected at the beginning of each regular General Assembly session.

  2. General Committee – This supervisory committee is responsible for ensuring the smooth functioning of the entire General Assembly meeting. It consists of the president and vice presidents of the current General Assembly session and the chairpersons of the six main committees.

D. Commissions

There are six commissions within the UNGA, each responsible for addressing specific issues or areas of concern, such as disarmament, international law, and trade.

E. Boards

The UNGA has seven boards, which are divided into two groups: Executive Boards and Boards. These boards oversee various aspects of the United Nations’ work, such as children’s welfare, development programs, and food security.

F. Councils and Panels

There are a total of four councils and one panel within the UNGA. These bodies address specific issues and provide guidance on UN policies and actions.

G. Working Groups and Other Subsidiary Bodies

A variety of working groups and other subsidiary bodies exist within the UNGA, addressing diverse issues and facilitating the work of the United Nations in addressing global challenges.

The Seating Arrangement in the United Nations General Assembly

The seating arrangement in the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) reflects the organization’s commitment to promoting international cooperation and understanding. Understanding this arrangement is essential to comprehending the UNGA’s functions and impact.

A. The Importance of Seating Arrangement

The seating arrangement is not just a matter of logistical convenience, it also provides a symbolic representation of the level of importance accorded to each state in the international community. It also reflects the UNGA’s commitment to promoting dialogue and understanding among nations.

B. Seating Allocation

At the UNGA, each of the 193 member states has a designated seat in the General Assembly Hall. The seating arrangement is based on a number of factors, including geographic location, political affiliation, and seniority in the United Nations.

C. Regional Groups

The seating arrangement is divided into five regional groups: African States, Asian States, Eastern European States, Latin American and Caribbean States, and Western European and Other States. These groups serve as a basis for the allocation of seats and the nomination of candidates for various UN positions.

D. Seating Plan

Each regional group has its designated section in the General Assembly Hall, with the seats arranged in a horseshoe shape facing the dais. The president of the UNGA sits in the center of the dais, facing the hall, with the Secretariat seated at the side.

E. Seniority

Within each regional group, the seats are assigned on the basis of seniority, with the most senior representatives occupying the front row seats.

F. Significance

The seating arrangement serves as a powerful symbol of the organization’s commitment to promoting cooperation and understanding among nations. By reflecting the diversity of the international community, it underscores the importance of working together to address the world’s most pressing challenges.

The Reform and United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA)

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) has been subject to criticisms and challenges over the years, prompting proposals for reform and improvements. One such proposal is the establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA).

A. Criticisms and challenges faced by the UNGA

The UNGA has faced criticisms and challenges in several areas, including:

  • Lack of effectiveness in addressing global issues
  • Unequal representation and influence of member states
  • Limited powers and authority compared to other UN organs
  • Inadequate funding and resources for its work

B. Proposed reforms and improvements

In response to these challenges, there have been various proposals for reforms and improvements to the UNGA, including:

  • Expansion of the membership to reflect changing global realities and promote greater representation and inclusivity
  • Enhancement of the UNGA’s powers and authority to make it more effective in addressing global challenges
  • Increased funding and resources to support the work of the UNGA and its subsidiary bodies

C. The United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA) proposal

One specific proposal for reforming the UNGA is the establishment of a United Nations Parliamentary Assembly (UNPA). This proposal envisions the creation of a UN body composed of elected representatives from national parliaments around the world, which would work alongside the UNGA in addressing global issues.

Some key points related to the UNPA proposal include:

  • The UNPA would be composed of directly elected representatives from national parliaments, reflecting the diversity of the world’s political systems and providing greater representation of citizens’ voices in the UN system.
  • The UNPA would have the power to pass non-binding resolutions and provide advisory opinions on global issues, serving as a complementary body to the UNGA and its subsidiary bodies.
  • The UNPA would operate in accordance with the principles of transparency, accountability, and democracy, and would be guided by the UN Charter and other international legal instruments.
  • The UNPA proposal has received support from various political leaders, civil society organizations, and academics, who see it as a means of strengthening global democracy and enhancing the effectiveness of the UN system. However, the proposal has also faced criticism and opposition, with some arguing that it would undermine the authority of national parliaments and create an additional layer of bureaucracy in the UN system.

The Sidelines of the General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) is not only a platform for member states to come together and address global issues but also a place for various meetings and events on the sidelines. These events play a significant role in shaping the international agenda and bringing together a diverse range of actors.

A. Independent Meetings Between World Leaders

On the sidelines of the UNGA, world leaders often hold independent meetings to discuss specific issues. These meetings are not officially part of the UNGA, but they provide an opportunity for leaders to discuss important matters in a more intimate setting.

B. The Influence of Non-Governmental Actors and Agendas

In addition to independent meetings between world leaders, non-governmental actors and their agendas also play a significant role in shaping the UNGA and its outcomes. Some of the key non-governmental actors include:

  • Civil society organizations
  • Private sector actors
  • Academia
  • Media

These actors bring their own perspectives and priorities to the UNGA, and their participation can help shape the international agenda. They often hold their own events and meetings on the sidelines of the UNGA, which provide opportunities for networking and collaboration.

Furthermore, non-governmental organizations can also play an important role in advocating for specific issues and influencing the decision-making of member states. They can bring attention to issues that might not have been considered otherwise and push for action on critical global challenges.


The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) plays a crucial role in addressing global issues and promoting international cooperation. As we have seen, the structure and composition of the UNGA, as well as its subsidiary organs and seating arrangement, reflect the organization’s commitment to promoting dialogue and understanding among nations.

A. The Significance of the UNGA in Addressing Global Issues

The UNGA provides a platform for member states to come together and address a wide range of issues related to international peace, security, and development. By providing a forum for dialogue and negotiation, the UNGA helps to promote cooperation and understanding among nations, and to identify shared solutions to global challenges.

B. The Potential Impact of Proposed Reforms

As the UNGA continues to evolve and face new challenges, proposed reforms and improvements may help to enhance its effectiveness and impact. These reforms could include measures to streamline the decision-making process, increase the involvement of civil society and other non-state actors, and strengthen the UNGA’s role in conflict prevention and resolution.

C. The Future of the United Nations General Assembly

Looking ahead, the UNGA will undoubtedly continue to play a vital role in promoting international cooperation and addressing global challenges. As the world becomes increasingly interconnected and complex, the UNGA will need to adapt and evolve to meet new challenges and ensure that it remains relevant and effective in the years to come.

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