There are several structural and practical limitations that have hindered the effectiveness of human rights commissions in India:
- Lack of independence: Human rights commissions in India are often seen as lacking independence from the government and are subject to political interference. This can undermine their ability to impartially investigate and address human rights violations.
- Limited powers: The powers of human rights commissions are limited to making recommendations and issuing orders, which are often not enforceable. This makes it difficult for them to effectively address human rights abuses.
- Limited resources: Human rights commissions in India often lack sufficient resources, including staff, funding, and infrastructure, which can hinder their ability to investigate and address human rights violations.
- Lack of public awareness: Many people in India are unaware of the existence of human rights commissions and the services they offer, which can make it difficult for them to access justice and seek help.
- Limited jurisdiction: The jurisdiction of human rights commissions is limited to specific states or regions, which means that they are unable to address human rights violations that occur outside of their jurisdiction.
To address these limitations, the following remedial measures could be taken:
- Ensuring independence: The government should ensure that human rights commissions are independent from political interference and are able to carry out their work impartially.
- Strengthening powers: The powers of human rights commissions should be strengthened so that they can take more effective action to address human rights abuses, such as issuing binding orders and issuing fines.
- Increasing resources: Human rights commissions should be provided with sufficient resources, including staff, funding, and infrastructure, to enable them to carry out their work effectively.
- Raising public awareness: Efforts should be made to raise public awareness of the existence and role of human rights commissions, so that more people are able to access their services and seek justice.
- Expanding jurisdiction: The jurisdiction of human rights commissions should be expanded to cover the entire country, so that they can address human rights violations that occur anywhere in India.