Since the decade of the 1920s, the national movement acquired various ideological strands and thereby expanded its social base. Discuss. (250 words) [2020]

The national movement in India during the 1920s saw the emergence of various ideological strands, which expanded its social base and attracted diverse sections of society. This period marked a significant shift in the Indian freedom struggle, as it moved from being an elitist movement to a mass movement.

Key ideological strands and their impact on the national movement:

  • Gandhian philosophy: The principles of non-violence, truth, and self-sufficiency advocated by Mahatma Gandhi have influenced various aspects of the national movement and continue to shape India’s political and social landscape.
  • Socialist ideas: Influenced by the Russian Revolution, some Indian leaders, such as Jawaharlal Nehru, supported socialism as a means to address social and economic inequalities.
  • Communist movement: The establishment of the Communist Party of India in 1925 further diversified the ideological landscape, focusing on the rights of workers and class struggle.
  • Revolutionary nationalism: Groups like the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, led by Bhagat Singh, aimed to achieve independence through armed struggle and revolutionary tactics.
  • Dalit movement: Led by B.R. Ambedkar, this movement aimed to uplift the marginalized Dalit community and challenge discrimination based on caste.
  • Women’s participation: Women played a significant role in the national movement, with leaders like Sarojini Naidu and Annie Besant advocating for women’s rights and equality.
  • Regional movements: Various regional movements emerged, such as the Tebhaga movement in Bengal and the Telangana movement in Andhra Pradesh, addressing local issues and contributing to the broader national struggle.
  • Religious and cultural nationalism: Leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Lala Lajpat Rai promoted Hindu nationalism, while the All India Muslim League advocated for the interests of the Muslim community, leading to the creation of Pakistan.
  • Constitutionalism: Some leaders, like Motilal Nehru and C. Rajagopalachari, focused on constitutional reforms and negotiations with the British government to achieve a gradual transition to self-rule.

In conclusion, the national movement in India since the 1920s has embraced diverse ideologies and movements, enabling it to broaden its social base and address a wide range of issues. This multifaceted approach has played a vital role in shaping India’s journey to independence and fostering a more inclusive society.

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