Since the decade of the 1920s, the national movement acquired various ideological strands and thereby expanded its social base. Discuss. (250 words) [2020]

The national movement in India was initially led by the Indian National Congress, which was a moderate, nationalist organization. However, in the 1920s, various other groups and individuals emerged with more radical ideologies.

  • These included the communist party, which advocated for socialist revolution and the abolition of capitalism.
  • The All India Kisan Sabha, a peasants’ organization, also emerged as a powerful force during this time, advocating for land reform and greater rights for the rural poor.
  • The national movement also saw the emergence of leaders such as Mahatma Gandhi, who introduced the concept of non-violent resistance through his philosophy of satyagraha.
  • The national movement also acquired a religious dimension with the formation of the Hindu nationalist organization Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) in 1925. The RSS played a significant role in the national movement, particularly in the later years of the struggle for independence.
  • The expansion of the social base of the national movement was reflected in the diverse range of groups and individuals who participated in the freedom struggle. This included not just political organizations and leaders, but also trade unions, students, and women’s groups.
  • Another significant development in the national movement during the 1920s was the emergence of a separate Muslim nationalist movement, led by the All India Muslim League. This reflected the growing sense of political and cultural identity among India’s Muslim community, as well as the increasing demand for greater representation and safeguards for their rights within a future independent India.

In summary, the national movement in India in the 1920s acquired various ideological strands and expanded its social base, reflecting the diverse range of issues and concerns that were being addressed by the freedom struggle.

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