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How does biodiversity vary in India? How is the Biological Diversity Act, 2002 helpful in conservation flora and fauna? (250 words)

India is one of the most biodiverse countries in the world, with a variety of ecosystems ranging from the Himalayas to the coast.

Variation in Biodiversity in India: Biodiversity in India varies across the country due to differences in climate, topography, and ecosystems. The following points highlight the variation in biodiversity in India:

  1. Himalayan Region – The Himalayan region is rich in biodiversity and is home to many endemic species of plants and animals, such as the Himalayan black bear and the snow leopard.
  2. Western Ghats – The Western Ghats are one of the eight “hottest hotspots” of biodiversity in the world, with a high level of endemism.
  3. Coastal Region – The coastal region is home to a variety of marine species, such as turtles, dolphins, and whales.
  4. Northeast India – Northeast India is another hotspot of biodiversity and is home to many endemic species of plants and animals, such as the Hoolock Gibbon and the Asiatic Elephant.

Biological Diversity Act, 2002: The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 is a comprehensive legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in India. The following points highlight how the Biological Diversity Act is helpful in conserving flora and fauna:

  1. Regulation of access to biological resources – The Act regulates access to biological resources and ensures that the benefits of using these resources are shared equitably.
  2. Protection of traditional knowledge – The Act protects traditional knowledge related to biological resources and ensures that the holders of such knowledge receive benefits from its use.
  3. Establishment of biodiversity management committees – The Act mandates the establishment of biodiversity management committees at the national, state, and local levels to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.
  4. Creation of biodiversity funds – The Act establishes biodiversity funds to support research, conservation, and sustainable use of biodiversity.

In conclusion, India’s biodiversity varies across the country due to differences in climate, topography, and ecosystems. The Biological Diversity Act, 2002 is a crucial legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in India, which regulates access to biological resources, protects traditional knowledge, establishes biodiversity management committees, and creates biodiversity funds. The Act is a crucial tool for protecting India’s rich biodiversity and ensuring that it is conserved and used sustainably for the benefit of present and future generations.

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