Explain the mechanism and occurrence of cloudburst in the context of Indian subcontinent. Discuss two recent examples. (150 words) [2022]

A cloudburst is a sudden and intense precipitation event that typically occurs in mountainous areas, and is characterized by a heavy and prolonged downpour of rain. In the Indian subcontinent, cloudbursts are typically associated with the monsoon season, which brings heavy rain to the region from June to September.

The mechanism of a cloudburst involves the rapid formation and descent of a large cumulonimbus cloud, which can produce a large amount of precipitation in a short period of time. This can occur when moist air from the monsoon is forced to rise over mountainous terrain, leading to the rapid formation and development of cumulonimbus clouds. When these clouds become saturated with moisture, they can release a large amount of rain in a short period of time.

Two recent examples of cloudbursts in the Indian subcontinent include the cloudburst that occurred in the state of Uttarakhand in June 2013, which caused widespread flash flooding and landslides and resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and billions of dollars in damage. Another example is the cloudburst that occurred in the state of Jammu and Kashmir in September 2014, which caused widespread flooding and landslides and resulted in the loss of hundreds of lives and billions of dollars in damage.

Overall, cloudbursts are a common and dangerous meteorological phenomenon in the Indian subcontinent, and can have a significant impact on human lives and property.

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