Explain the causes and effects of coastal erosion in India. What are the available coastal management techniques for combating the hazard? (250 words) [2022]

Coastal erosion is the wearing away of land along the coast due to natural processes, such as the action of waves and currents, and human activities. In India, coastal erosion is a significant hazard that affects many parts of the country, particularly in areas with a long and shallow coast, such as the east and west coasts.

There are several causes of coastal erosion in India. Natural causes include the shape of the coastline, the strength and direction of waves and currents, and the type of sediment present along the coast. Human activities, such as the construction of ports, jetties, and breakwaters, can also contribute to coastal erosion by disrupting the natural flow of water and sediment along the coast.

The effects of coastal erosion in India can be severe. It can lead to the loss of land, the destruction of homes and infrastructure, and the loss of natural habitats, such as mangroves and coral reefs. It can also contribute to the salinization of soil and water, making it difficult for crops to grow.

There are several coastal management techniques that can be used to combat the hazard of coastal erosion in India. These techniques include:

  1. Hard stabilization techniques: These techniques involve the construction of physical structures, such as seawalls and groynes, to protect the coast from the action of waves and currents.
  2. Beach nourishment: This technique involves the addition of sand or other sediment to the beach to increase its width and height.
  3. Natural stabilization techniques: These techniques involve the use of natural processes, such as vegetation, to protect the coast from erosion.
  4. Land use planning: This technique involves the careful planning and management of land use in coastal areas to minimize the impact of human activities on the coast.

Overall, a combination of these techniques can be effective in reducing the impact of coastal erosion in India and protecting the country’s vulnerable coastal communities.

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