Based on the given options, the correct answer is (b) Rice. Here’s a detailed explanation of each option:
The most important anthropogenic source of both methane and nitrous oxide among the given crops is Rice. Rice paddies are considered one of the most important sources of methane (CH4) emissions due to the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in flooded fields. Additionally, rice paddies are a significant source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions due to the use of nitrogen fertilizers and other agricultural practices.
- Methane (CH4): Methane is a potent greenhouse gas emitted during the production and transport of coal, natural gas, and oil. Methane emissions also result from livestock and other agricultural practices, land use, and by the decay of organic waste in municipal solid waste landfills.
- Nitrous oxide (N2O): Nitrous oxide is another potent greenhouse gas emitted during agricultural, land use, and industrial activities; combustion of fossil fuels and solid waste; as well as during treatment of wastewater. Nitrous oxide emissions occur naturally through many sources associated with the nitrogen cycle, which is the natural circulation of nitrogen among the atmosphere, plants, animals, and microorganisms.
- Anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions: Human activities such as agriculture, fuel combustion, waste management, and industrial processes are increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, contributing to global warming and climate change. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone.